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Pharmaceuticals have been detected throughout the environment where at least in some cases, they have been shown to have a detrimental effect. Many result from improper patient disposal of unused pharmaceuticals via environmentally-unfriendly routes, such as the sink, toilet or rubbish bin. This review surveys the current peer-reviewed literature on(More)
Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have recently been detected at low concentrations in wastewater and surface water. This work reports studies of the direct and indirect photochemical fate and treatment by advanced oxidation of three antidepressant compounds (duloxetine, venlafaxine and bupropion) in solutions of humic acid in order to elucidate their behavior(More)
Sunlight-induced molecular changes have been observed in two samples of dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected in the Cape Fear River system, North Carolina, USA. The molecular composition of a water sample collected in the Black River (sample B210, salinity 0) and another water sample collected within the Cape Fear River estuary (sample M61, salinity(More)
Two methods for the determination of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in marine biota have been developed and validated using ultra-performance LC coupled to triple quadrupole MS. The direct analysis of TTX is completed in one method, while the other method detects the dehydration product of TTX after reaction with base. The methods were validated in a single-laboratory(More)
BACKGROUND There is an enhanced international awareness that the improper disposal of unwanted and unused medications may have a detrimental effect on the environment. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of unused medications in New Zealand that are not returned to a pharmacy for disposal and are instead disposed of via land(More)
Many pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites are currently found in surface and ground waters which indicates their ineffective removal by conventional water treatment technologies. Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/ RPs) are alternatives to traditional water treatment, which utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical(More)
This review summarizes direct and indirect analytical methods for the detection and quantification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS): 1O2, O 2 ·− /HOO·, H2O2, HO·, and CO 3 ·− in aqueous solution. Each section briefly describes the chemical properties of a specific ROS followed by a table (organized alphabetically by detection method, i.e., absorbance,(More)
An equilibrium model based on the CO 2 system was developed to model pH throughout the estuarine salinity range using the composition of the river and seawater end members. In order to validate the model, a spectrophotometric method was used to measure pH in an estuary and laboratory mixing experiments. The model successfully represented the measured pH(More)
INTRODUCTION One of the recommended methods for households to dispose of unused medications in many countries is to return them to community pharmacies. However, such a practice will only reduce the environmental levels of pharmaceuticals if the medications are also disposed of and destroyed properly by the pharmacies. AIM This study reports the results(More)
Intrinsic or acquired resistance to the HER2-targeted therapy trastuzumab is a clinical concern in the treatment of patients with HER2-over-expressing metastatic breast cancers. We demonstrate here that multiple models of intrinsic and acquired resistance exhibit increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Kinase inhibition of p38 rescued trastuzumab sensitivity(More)