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Pharmaceuticals have been detected throughout the environment where at least in some cases, they have been shown to have a detrimental effect. Many result from improper patient disposal of unused pharmaceuticals via environmentally-unfriendly routes, such as the sink, toilet or rubbish bin. This review surveys the current peer-reviewed literature on(More)
Two methods for the determination of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in marine biota have been developed and validated using ultra-performance LC coupled to triple quadrupole MS. The direct analysis of TTX is completed in one method, while the other method detects the dehydration product of TTX after reaction with base. The methods were validated in a single-laboratory(More)
Many pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites are currently found in surface and ground waters which indicates their ineffective removal by conventional water treatment technologies. Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/ RPs) are alternatives to traditional water treatment, which utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured in road debris collecting in urban areas and in the suspended sediment (SS) component of runoff from two stormwater catchments in Dunedin, New Zealand. Levels in the road debris ranged from 119-527 microg/g for lead, 50-464 microg/g for copper, 241-1 325 microg/g for zinc and 1.20-11.6(More)
Sunlight-induced molecular changes have been observed in two samples of dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected in the Cape Fear River system, North Carolina, USA. The molecular composition of a water sample collected in the Black River (sample B210, salinity 0) and another water sample collected within the Cape Fear River estuary (sample M61, salinity(More)
Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have recently been detected at low concentrations in wastewater and surface water. This work reports studies of the direct and indirect photochemical fate and treatment by advanced oxidation of three antidepressant compounds (duloxetine, venlafaxine and bupropion) in solutions of humic acid in order to elucidate their behavior(More)
A comparison is presented of six methods involving nitric acid in conjunction with other reagents to digest three certified marine biological samples (DOLT-3, DORM-3, IAEA-407) and a fish bone homogenate (prepared from Merluccius australis). An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer with an octopole collision cell was used to determine up to 40(More)
BACKGROUND There is an enhanced international awareness that the improper disposal of unwanted and unused medications may have a detrimental effect on the environment. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of unused medications in New Zealand that are not returned to a pharmacy for disposal and are instead disposed of via land(More)
The effects of ethanol on the conformation of proteins or fluidity of lipids was studied in human erythrocyte ghosts and rat brain synaptosomal membranes. A maleimide nitroxide probe (MAL-6) was coupled to membrane protein, or 5-doxylstearic (5NS) was dissolved in the membrane lipid, and the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were recorded in the(More)
This is the first comprehensive study of sources of variation in metal concentrations within the whole tissues of a shallow burrowing, filter-feeding intertidal clam, Austrovenus stutchburyi. Samples were collected from 12 sites in April, August, November and February in 1993-1994 in the vicinity of Otago Harbour and Peninsula, New Zealand. Total tissue(More)