Learn More
Tramadol is an analgesic and antitussive agent that is metabolized to O-desmethyltramadol (M1), which is also active. Tramadol and M1 exert their mode of action through complex interactions between opiate, adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. The pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 were examined following intravenous and oral tramadol administration to six(More)
Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in(More)
OBJECTIVES To discuss the clinical pharmacology of currently licensed veterinary NSAIDs and to review gastrointestinal and renal adverse effects as well as drug-drug interactions that have been reported with these drugs. To review the use of NSAIDs in the peri-operative setting and their use in patients with osteoarthritis. To further review the reported(More)
Methadone is an opioid, which has a high oral bioavailability (>70%) and a long elimination half-life (>20 h) in human beings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketoconazole [a CYP3A and p-glycoprotein (p-gp) inhibitor] and omeprazole (an H+,K(+)-ATPase proton-pump inhibitor) on oral methadone bioavailability in dogs. Six healthy dogs(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the behavioral effects and pharmacokinetics of methadone in healthy Greyhounds. STUDY DESIGN Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS Three male and three female healthy Greyhounds. METHODS Methadone hydrochloride, 0.5 mg kg(-1) IV (equivalent to 0.45 mg kg(-1) methadone base), was administered as an IV bolus. Trained observers(More)
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily constitutes a collection of enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a wide array of endo- and xenobiotic compounds. Much of the knowledge on substrate specificity and genetic identification of the various CYP isoforms is derived from research in rodents and humans and only limited information has been captured in the(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of meloxicam in ruminant calves. Six Holstein calves (145 to 170 kg) received meloxicam at 0.5 mg/kg IV or 1 mg/kg PO in a randomized crossover design with a 10-day washout period. Plasma samples collected up to 96 hours after administration were analyzed by liquid(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) following morphine administered intravenously and orally to dogs in a randomized crossover design. Six healthy 3-4-year-old Beagle dogs were administered morphine sulfate (0.5 mg/kg) as an i.v. bolus and extended release tablets were administered(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine after IV administration as an infusion or multiple doses in dogs by use of a von Frey (vF) device. ANIMALS 6 dogs. PROCEDURE In the first 2 crossover experiments of a 3-way crossover study, morphine or saline (0.9%) solution was administered via IV infusion. Loading doses and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the use of a von Frey device as a mechanical nociceptive stimulus for evaluation of the antinociceptive effects of morphine in dogs and its potential application in the pharmacodynamic modeling of morphine in that species. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURE von Frey thresholds were measured in all dogs before and at intervals after(More)