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Tramadol is an analgesic and antitussive agent that is metabolized to O-desmethyltramadol (M1), which is also active. Tramadol and M1 exert their mode of action through complex interactions between opiate, adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. The pharmacokinetics of tramadol and M1 were examined following intravenous and oral tramadol administration to six(More)
Dextromethorphan is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) noncompetitive antagonist which has been used as an antitussive, analgesic adjunct, probe drug, experimentally to attenuate acute opiate and ethanol withdrawal, and as an anticonvulsant. A metabolite of dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, has been shown to behave pharmacodynamically in a similar manner to(More)
Gabapentin is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue indicated for treatment of neuropathic pain. This study determined the pharmacokinetics of oral (PO) gabapentin alone or in combination with meloxicam in ruminant calves. Gabapentin capsules at 10mg/kg or gabapentin powder (from capsules at 15mg/kg) and meloxicam tablets (0.5mg/kg) were administered PO to(More)
OBJECTIVES To discuss the clinical pharmacology of currently licensed veterinary NSAIDs and to review gastrointestinal and renal adverse effects as well as drug-drug interactions that have been reported with these drugs. To review the use of NSAIDs in the peri-operative setting and their use in patients with osteoarthritis. To further review the reported(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) following morphine administered intravenously and orally to dogs in a randomized crossover design. Six healthy 3-4-year-old Beagle dogs were administered morphine sulfate (0.5 mg/kg) as an i.v. bolus and extended release tablets were administered(More)
BACKGROUND Dehorning is a common practice involving calves on dairy operations in the United States. However, less than 20% of producers report using analgesics or anesthetics during dehorning. Administration of a systemic analgesic drug at the time of dehorning may be attractive to dairy producers since cornual nerve blocks require 10 - 15 min to take(More)
  • B KuKanich
  • 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of codeine and the active metabolites morphine and codeine-6-glucuronide after i.v. codeine administration and the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (APAP), codeine, morphine, and codeine-6-glucuronide after oral administration of combination product containing acetaminophen and codeine to(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol, the active metabolite O-desmethyltrcamadol, and the metabolites N-desmethyltramadol and N,O-didesmethyltramadol after oral tramadol administration and to determine the antinociceptive effects of the drug in Greyhounds. ANIMALS 6 healthy 2- to 3-year-old Greyhounds (3 male and 3 female), weighing(More)