B. King

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BACKGROUND Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently represents the closest "gold standard" for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but operational data are scant on the impact and cost-effectiveness of TB culture for human immunodeficiency (HIV-) infected individuals in resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We recorded costs,(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer originates in breast epithelium and is associated with progressive molecular and morphologic changes. Women with atypical breast ductal epithelial cells have an increased relative risk of breast cancer. In this study, ductal lavage, a new procedure for collecting ductal cells with a microcatheter, was compared with nipple aspiration(More)
Loss to follow-up is a major source of bias in cohorts of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and could lead to underestimation of mortality. The authors developed a hierarchical deterministic linkage algorithm to be used primarily with cohorts of HIV-infected persons to recover vital status information for patients lost to follow-up. Data from(More)
Microsatellite instability has been observed in a variety of sporadic malignancies, but its existence in sporadic ovarian cancer has been the subject of conflicting reports. We have performed a polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite analysis of DNAs extracted from the neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues of 41 ovarian cancer patients.(More)
INTRODUCTION Nipple aspiration is a noninvasive technique for obtaining breast fluids from the duct openings of the nipple for the evaluation of abnormalities associated with breast cancer. Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) can be elicited from 48 to 94% of healthy women, and its production has been linked to an increased relative risk for breast cancer(More)
Opportunities for the detection, prediction, and treatment of breast cancer exist at three biological levels: systemically via the blood, at the whole organ level, and within the individual ductal lobular structures of the breast. This review covers the evaluation of approaches targeted to the ductal lobular units, where breast cancer begins. Studies to(More)
Intraductal approaches encompass procedures and technologies that are designed to access and interrogate the ductal-alveolar systems of the human breast, and include nipple aspiration, ductal lavage, random periareolar fine needle aspiration, and ductoscopy. These approaches are being used to collect and analyze fluids and cells to develop methods for(More)
Loss to follow-up is a major source of bias in cohorts of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and could lead to underestimation of mortality. The authors developed a hierarchical deterministic linkage algorithm to be used primarily with cohorts of HIV-infected persons to recover vital status information for patients lost to follow-up. Data from(More)
Programming environments consist of those tools and techniques that are applied throughout the software life cycle. Recent interest in programming environments has existed in industry, government, and academia. This paper is a synopsis of five graduate software engineering course projects in which programming environments were analyzed. The basis for the(More)
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