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The mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38, are activated in response to infectious agents and innate immune stimulators such as CpG DNA, and regulate the subsequent initiation and termination of immune responses. CpG DNA activates p38 and ERK with slightly different kinetics in monocytic cells. The present(More)
Pneumonia occurring as a secondary infection after influenza is a major cause of excess morbidity and mortality, despite the availability and use of antibiotics active against Streptococcus pneumoniae. We hypothesized that the use of a bacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitor would improve outcomes by reducing the inflammatory response. BALB/cJ mice(More)
Whether p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are required for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) accumulation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) was investigated. By use of Western(More)
MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 is an archetypal member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase family that dephosphorylates MAPK. We have previously demonstrated that MKP-1 acts as a negative regulator of p38 and JNK in immortalized macrophages after stimulation with peptidoglycan isolated from Gram-positive bacteria. To define the physiological function of(More)
Several lines of evidence have suggested that protein tyrosine phosphatases, including CD45 and SHP-1, regulate macrophage activation. Macrophages from mice lacking SHP-1 (motheaten mice) are hyper-responsive to many stimuli, suggesting that SHP-1 may negatively regulate macrophage activation. Herein we report that the repressible/inducible over-expression(More)
The emergence of tolerance to vancomycin has recently been reported in Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. A vancomycin- and cephalosporin-tolerant strain of S. pneumoniae, the Tupelo strain, was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient who then developed recrudescence of meningitis despite treatment with(More)
Macrophage activation by CpG DNA requires toll-like receptor 9 and the adaptor protein MyD88. Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide also activates macrophages via a toll-like receptor pathway (TLR-4), but we and others have reported that lipopolysaccharide also stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages. Herein we report that exposure of RAW(More)