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Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements(More)
Space sickness symptoms were observed by 4 specially trained observers on Spacelab-1. Three reported persistent symptoms, and vomited repeatedly during the first and/or second day of flight. Head movements on all axes were provocative, particularly in pitch and roll. Head acceleration data recorded from 2 symptomatic crewmen showed that after several hours(More)
Observations with three astronauts yielded two major findings. First, perceived self-motion during sinusoidal roll differed immediately postflight from preflight. Between 70 and 150 min after landing, roll was perceived primarily as linear translation. Secondly, more horizontal eye movement was elicited by roll stimulation immediately postflight relative to(More)
Ocular counterrolling (OCR) has previously been studied using static head tilt or continuous rotation about the line of sight as a stimulus to the otolith organs. This study presents the first measurements of OCR in humans induced by linear accelerations. Dynamic measurements of the response to lateral linear acceleration indicate the eye movements to be on(More)
In a previous report we have shown that microtubule-associated protein tau can be induced to form paracrystals (Lichtenberg, B., E.-M. Mandelkow, T. Hagestedt, and E. Mandelkow. 1988. Nature [Lond.]. 334:359-362). A striking feature was the high degree of elasticity of the molecules. We now report that this property is related to the state of(More)
Ocular torsion (OT) was measured in human subjects during horizontal linear acceleration on a sled in the laboratory and when emerging from weightlessness during parabolic flights in NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Analysis of the frequency response of OT to sinusoidal horizontal oscillation on earth shows results consistent with constant tilt rate studies and with(More)
Experiments on human spatial orientation were conducted on four crewmembers of Space Shuttle Spacelab Mission 1. This introductory paper presents the conceptual background of the project, the relationship among the experiments and their relevance to a "sensory reinterpretation hypothesis". Detailed experiment procedures and results are presented in the(More)
This paper describes initial experiments to determine the feasibility of recording functionally distinct neuroelectric signals from the surface of the rabbit's sciatic nerve. A cuff electrode assembly was constructed; it consisted of two planar arrays, each having four wires equally spaced around the circumference of the electrode. The electrode assembly(More)
Tau is one of the diverse group of microtubule-associated proteins that bind to microtubules and may thereby influence their structure and function. It occurs in the mammalian brain, mainly in axons, and is a component of the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Tau was recently sequenced, but there remains a short-age of structural data on the(More)