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RNA interference in mammalian cells is actively used to conduct genetic screens, to identify and to validate targets, and to elucidate regulators and modifiers of cellular pathways. To ensure the specificity and efficacy of the active 21mer siRNA molecules, it is pertinent to develop a strategy for their rational design. Here we show that most functional(More)
In the embryonic kidney, progenitors in the metanephric mesenchyme differentiate into specialized renal epithelia in a defined sequence characterized by the formation of cellular aggregates, conversion into polarized epithelia and segmentation along a proximal-distal axis. This sequence is reiterated throughout renal development to generate nephrons. Here,(More)
MOTIVATION Data representation and encoding are essential for classification of protein sequences with artificial neural networks (ANN). Biophysical properties are appropriate for low dimensional encoding of protein sequence data. However, in general there is no a priori knowledge of the relevant properties for extraction of representative features. (More)
INTRODUCTION Development of the metanephric kidney is initiated when the ureteric bud enters the metanephric mesenchyme and induces mesenchymal progenitors to differentiate into renal epithelia. Epithelialization of the metanephric mesenchyme develops in a sequence that is currently defined by morphological criteria and by the expression of signature(More)
Nephrosis and a rapid decline in kidney function characterize HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Histologically, HIVAN is a collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with prominent tubular damage. We explored the expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of tubular injury, to determine whether this protein has the(More)
Cell-based assays are powerful tools for drug discovery and provide insight into complex signal transduction pathways in higher eukaryotic cells. Information gleaned from assays that monitor a cellular phenotype can be used to elucidate the details of a single pathway and to establish patterns of cross talk between pathways. By selecting the appropriate(More)
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