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In the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) variant of the Guillain-Barré syndrome, weakness is restricted to extraocular muscles and occasionally other craniobulbar muscles. Most MFS patients have serum antibodies against ganglioside type GQ1b of which the pathophysiological relevance is unclear. We examined the in vitro effects of MFS sera, MFS IgG, and a human(More)
Gangliosides are a family of sialylated glycosphingolipids enriched in the outer leaflet of neuronal membranes, in particular at synapses. Therefore, they have been hypothesized to play a functional role in synaptic transmission. We have measured in detail the electrophysiological parameters of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ex(More)
The pathogenesis of encephalitis associated with the respiratory pathogen Myco-plasma pneumoniae is not well understood. A direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and an immune-mediated process have been discussed [1]. Recent observations suggest that intrathecally detectable antibodies against the bacterium , which can serve to establish the(More)
Monoclonal gammopathy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related disorders has been reported in small studies but the validity of the reported associations remains uncertain. Presence of monoclonal gammopathy may indicate specific pathogenic pathways and may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies. The objective of(More)
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a potentially life-threatening postinfectious disease characterized by rapidly progressive, symmetrical weakness of the extremities. About 25% of patients develop respiratory insufficiency and many show signs of autonomic dysfunction. Diagnosis can usually be made on clinical grounds, but lumbar puncture and(More)
BACKGROUND Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and is associated with post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). We here present comparative genotyping of 49 C. jejuni strains from Bangladesh that were recovered from patients with enteritis or GBS. All strains were(More)
Gangliosides are sialylated glycosphingolipids that are present in high density on neuronal membranes, especially at synapses, where they are assumed to play functional or modulating roles. Mice lacking GM2/GD2-synthase express only the simple gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and develop progressive motor behaviour deficits upon ageing, apparently due to failing(More)
Molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and host tissue forms an attractive hypothetical mechanism for the triggering of autoimmune disease by preceding infections. Recent crucial reviews state that molecular mimicry, as the causative mechanism, remains unproven for any human autoimmune disease. However, the peripheral neuropathy Guillain-Barré(More)
High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an effective treatment for many antibody-mediated neuromuscular diseases, suggesting that IVIg directly interferes with the pathways through which the pathogenic antibodies exert their effects. However, the precise mechanisms of action are unclear. Serum anti-GQ1b antibodies are strongly associated with(More)
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an important cause of acute neuromuscular paralysis. Molecular mimicry and a cross-reactive immune response play a crucial part in its pathogenesis, at least in those cases with a preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection and with antibodies to gangliosides. The type of preceding infection and patient-related host factors(More)