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The clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2 bind cargo proteins via two types of motifs: tyrosine-based Yxx phi and dileucine-based [DE]XXXL[LI]. Although it is well established that Yxx phi motifs bind to the mu subunits of AP-1 or AP-2, dileucine motifs have been reported to bind to either the mu or beta subunits of these adaptors as well as the gamma/sigma1(More)
The GGAs are a multidomain protein family implicated in protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomes. Here, the VHS domain of GGA2 was shown to bind to the acidic cluster-dileucine motif in the cytoplasmic tail of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). Receptors with mutations in this motif were defective in lysosomal enzyme(More)
The Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) are multidomain proteins that bind mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) in the Golgi and have an essential role in lysosomal enzyme sorting. Here the GGAs and the coat protein adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) were shown to colocalize in clathrin-coated buds(More)
Estrogens and their receptors are important in human development, physiology and disease. In this study, we utilized an integrated genome-wide molecular and computational approach to characterize the interaction between the activated estrogen receptor (ER) and the regulatory elements of candidate target genes. Of around 19,000 genes surveyed in this study,(More)
The AP-2 clathrin adaptor differs fundamentally from the related AP-1, AP-3, and AP-4 sorting complexes because membrane deposition does not depend directly on an Arf family GTPase. Instead phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) appears to act as the principal compartmental cue for AP-2 placement at the plasma membrane as well as for the(More)
The adaptor protein AP-1 is the major coat protein involved in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. The prevailing view is that AP-1 recruitment involves coincident binding to multiple low-affinity sites comprising adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 1 (Arf-1)-guanosine triphosphate (GTP), cargo sorting signals, and(More)
The GGAs (Golgi-localizing, gamma-adaptin ear homology domain, ARF-binding) are a multidomain family of proteins implicated in protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomes. Recent evidence has established that the cation-independent (CI) and cation-dependent (CD) mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) bind specifically to the VHS domains of the GGAs(More)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an evolutionarily ancient membrane transport system regulating cellular receptivity and responsiveness. Plasmalemma clathrin-coated structures range from unitary domed assemblies to expansive planar constructions with internal or flanking invaginated buds. Precisely how these morphologically-distinct coats are formed, and(More)
The Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, ADP ribosylation factor-binding family of monomeric clathrin adaptors (GGAs) is known to bind cargo molecules through short C-terminal peptide motifs conforming to the sequence DXXLL (X = any amino acid), while the heterotetrameric adaptors AP-1 and AP-2 utilize a similar but discrete sorting motif of the sequence(More)
The expression of mutants with deletions in the N-terminal signal-anchor sequence of cytochrome P450 2C2 and His-tag fusions was examined in Escherichia coli to determine the influence of N-terminal sequences on expression of the protein. Two mutants predicted to be translocated across the membrane inhibited bacterial growth. In other mutants, deletion of(More)