B Haxhiu-Poskurica

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The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) have been shown to induce airway smooth muscle contraction in mature animals, and the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP) modulates this effect. We evaluated maturation of SP- and NKA-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction and modulation of their effects by NEP in anesthetized, paralyzed, and(More)
In adult animals, airway fluid secretion is enhanced reflexly via central nervous system pathways, and locally by mediators such as substance P. To evaluate the role of maturation on these regulatory mechanisms, we compared the effects of reflex stimulation and intravenous substance P administration on airway secretion in anesthetized, paralyzed and(More)
We studied physiological and pharmacological maturation of cholinergic innervation to tracheal smooth muscle in piglets at three ages: < 7 days, 2-3 wk, and 10 wk. Change in tracheal tension was measured in vivo from a tracheal segment and normalized for its size. Electrical vagal stimulation induced a significantly weaker increase in tracheal tension at <(More)
Peripheral chemoreceptors may be immature in neonatal animals, exhibiting maturational changes in the perinatal period. Even though methylxanthines are respiratory stimulants, many premature neonates do not respond to them. Thus, we hypothesized that carotid body activity is necessary for aminophylline to reverse hypoxia-induced respiratory depression. We(More)
The effects of recurrent hypoxia on cardiorespiratory reflexes were characterized in anesthetized piglets at 2-10 d (n=15), 2-3 weeks (n=11) and 8-10 weeks (n=8). Responses of phrenic and hypoglossal electroneurograms (ENG(phr) and ENG (hyp)) to hypoxia (8% 0(2), bal N(2), 5 min), hypercapnia (7% CO(2) bal O(2), 5 min) and intravenous capsaicin were tested(More)
Stimulation of chemo-, irritant, and pulmonary C-fiber receptors reflexly constricts airway smooth muscle and alters ventilation in mature animals. These reflex responses of airway smooth muscle have, however, not been clearly characterized during early development. In this study we compared the maturation of reflex pathways regulating airway smooth muscle(More)
We compared maturation of the responses of the rib cage [triangularis sterni (TS)] and abdominal [transversus abdominis (TA)] expiratory muscles with each other and with the responses of the diaphragm (DIA) during hypercarbic and hypoxic stimulation. Studies were performed in anesthetized (urethan and chloralose) piglets of two age groups (< 6 days, n = 10;(More)
In animals with intact peripheral chemosensory afferents, hypoxia differentially affects upper airway (UA) and chest wall muscles. To determine the contribution of brain stem (BS) hypoxia to the response of UA and chest wall muscles during early life, we perfused the BS through a vertebral artery intermittently with blood from an extracorporeal circuit in(More)
Both endothelin-1 protein and endothelin-1 specific binding sites have been identified in areas of the medulla oblongata involved in respiratory control. We examined whether endothelin acting centrally affects respiratory output during early postnatal life. We initially examined the effect of intracisternally administrated endothelin on respiratory output(More)
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