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[1] Rocks on the floor of Gusev crater are basaltic in composition, as determined from measurements by the Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit. On the basis of compositional data, models of the basaltic lavas at the time of their emplacement suggest viscosities of 2.3 to 50 Pa s (dependent on the number of phenocrysts and vesicles that were present), which would(More)
Images from the Mars Express HRSC (High-Resolution Stereo Camera) of debris aprons at the base of massifs in eastern Hellas reveal numerous concentrically ridged lobate and pitted features and related evidence of extremely ice-rich glacier-like viscous flow and sublimation. Together with new evidence for recent ice-rich rock glaciers at the base of the(More)
Recently reported results from latest Mars Orbiters and Rovers missions are transforming our opinion about the red planet. That dry and inhospitable planet reported in the past is becoming a wetter planet with high probabilities of water existence in the past. Nowadays, some results seem to indicate the presence of water beneath the Mars surface. But also(More)
The search for evidence of past or present life on Mars will require the detection of markers that indicate the presence of life. Because deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in all known living organisms, it is considered to be a ‘biosignature’ of life. The main function of DNA is the long-term storage of genetic information, which is passed on from(More)
It is thought that the Cerberus Fossae fissures on Mars were the source of both lava and water floods two to ten million years ago. Evidence for the resulting lava plains has been identified in eastern Elysium, but seas and lakes from these fissures and previous water flooding events were presumed to have evaporated and sublimed away. Here we present High(More)
In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a(More)
We report the results of a high temporal resolution spectroscopic monitoring of the flare star AD Leo. During 4 nights, more than 600 spectra were taken in the optical range using the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) and the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS). We have observed a large number of short and weak flares occurring very frequently (flare(More)
We present Hα, He i λ 2.058 µm and 6 hydrogen Brackett and Pfund lines of τ Sco (B0.2V) obtained using the ground-based INT and UKIRT instruments as well as satellite data from ISO. The infrared lines all show core emission. We have investigated the formation of these lines using sophisticated non-LTE models. The observed emission in the most pronounced(More)
Objective. HDT bed rest condition is a simulated microgravity condition in which subject lies on bed inclined -6 degree feet up. To determine the influence of a simulated microgravity (HDT bed rest) on oral cavity, 10 healthy male volunteers were studied before, during, just after, and after 6 weeks of the simulated microgravity condition of -6°(More)
Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the(More)