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Satellite instruments currently provide global maps of surface UV irradiance by combining backscattered radiance data with radiative transfer models. The models are often limited by uncertainties in physical input parameters of the atmosphere and surface. Global mapping of the underwater UV irradiance creates further challenges for the models. The(More)
Studies on phytoplankton were one component of the multidisciplinary RACER program which had 69 stations within a 100 x 250-kin rectangle in the southwestern Bransfield Strait and contiguous waters. Data were acquired during eight cruises between December 1986 and March 1987. All deep stations north of the continental shelf break were low in phytoplankton(More)
Ocean acidification poses multiple challenges for coral reefs on molecular to ecological scales, yet previous experimental studies of the impact of projected CO₂ concentrations have mostly been done in aquarium systems with corals removed from their natural ecosystem and placed under artificial light and seawater conditions. The Coral-Proto Free Ocean(More)
[1] Satellite data show that oceanic eddies generated in the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) are associated with increased phytoplankton biomass. Cyclonic eddies with high chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a) retain phytoplankton within the eddy cores and increase the light available for photosynthesis in the upper mixed layer by(More)
An extensive biological and optical data set was collected during a 4 month cruise as part of the Research on Antarctic Coastal Ecosystem Rates (RACER) program conducted in coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent open ocean waters of Drake Passage. Chlorophyll plus phaeopigment (Chl + Phaeo) concentration in the upper mixed layer ranged 2(More)
Pigment-specific absorption bq total particulatea. detritus and phytoplankton was measured throughout the euphotic zone at > 275 stations on three cruises off California in late IYY 1 and early 1992. A new spectral Ruoresccncc method for assessing photosynthetically active absorption in natural samples was developed and applied. Spatial variability in(More)
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the(More)
Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt(More)
With the proliferation of digital cameras and automatic acquisition systems, scientists can acquire vast numbers of images for quantitative analysis. However, much image analysis is conducted manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error. As a result, valuable scientific data from many domains sit dormant in image libraries awaiting annotation.(More)