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This work describes the application of two different test structures to execute broadband microwave measurements of the dielectric constant of ceramic thin films. Coplanar waveguide probes and vector network analyzer were used to measure the dielectric constant versus frequency of thin films of lead zirconate titanate and zirconium titanate, fabricated by(More)
BaFe12O19 is a popular M-type hexaferrite with a Néel temperature of 720 K and is of enormous commercial value ($3 billion/year). It is an incipient ferroelectric with an expected ferroelectric phase transition extrapolated to lie at 6 K but suppressed due to quantum fluctuations. The theory of quantum criticality for such uniaxial ferroelectrics predicts(More)
The management of paediatric primary vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) has undergone serial changes over the last decade. As this disorder is extremely heterogeneous, and high-quality prospective data are limited, the treatment strategies vary among centres. Current treatment options include observation only, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, and surgery.(More)
OBJECTIVES We review the various applications of laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopy in paediatric urology, as the laparoscopic and robotic approach in this population is gradually being recognised. METHODS We searched PubMed for human studies in English that were published between 1990 and the present, focusing on laparoscopic nephrectomies and(More)
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