B. E. Marshall

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OBJECTIVE To review the history and current applications of artificial intelligence in the intensive care unit. DATA SOURCES The MEDLINE database, bibliographies of selected articles, and current texts on the subject. STUDY SELECTION The studies that were selected for review used artificial intelligence tools for a variety of intensive care(More)
An NADPH-oxidase complex containing at least two protein components (gp91-phox and p22-phox) and a unique low redox potential (-245 mV) cytochrome b-245 is the source of superoxide generated for bacterial killing in neutrophils and has been suggested as the oxygen sensor in the carotid body. In pure cultures of smooth muscle cells from calf small pulmonary(More)
The influence of mixed venous oxygen tension (PVO2) on blood flow to the atelectatic left lung was studied at normal and reduced cardiac outputs (CO) using extracorporeal veno-venous bypass in six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Aortic and left pulmonary artery flows; airway, left atrial, central venous, pulmonary, and systemic(More)
Rat lungs were perfused in an in vitro circuit with separate control of alveolar and pulmonary arterial O2 tension. With perfusion flow constant, the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor (HPV) response was measured as changes of perfusion pressure. HPV was a function of both alveolar O2 tension (PvO2) and was described by a double sigmoid response surface.(More)
• Nearly all theories of the mechanisms involved in hemorrhagic shock depend upon observations made in anesthetized, infra-human species. Since anesthetics can modify circulatory responses and since species differences undoubtedly exist, it was elected to perform the present study in conscious human volunteers. The results differ in certain important(More)
The authors studied the influence of locally administered isoflurane anesthesia on the pulmonary vascular response to regional alveolar hypoxia (hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction [HPV]) over a range of cardiac outputs (COs) in seven mechanically ventilated, closed-chest dogs. The right lung was ventilated with 100% O2 throughout the study. The left lung(More)
We developed micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MMIMS) probes to rapidly measure inert-gas partial pressures in small blood samples. The mass spectrometer output was linearly related to inert-gas partial pressure (r(2) of 0.996-1.000) and was nearly independent of large variations in inert-gas solubility in liquid samples. We infused six inert(More)
The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to unilateral hypoxia was analyzed in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs (n = 5), miniature swine (n = 5), and ponies (n = 5). The left and right lungs (LL, RL) were separately ventilated with the LL exposed to inspired oxygen concentrations (CIO2) of 100%, 12%, 8% or 4%, while the RL always received a CIO2 =(More)
In this review, the second of a two part series, the analytic techniques introduced in the first part are applied to a broad range of pulmonary pathophysiologic conditions. The contributions of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction to both homeostasis and pathophysiology are quantitated for atelectasis, pneumonia, sepsis, pulmonary embolism, chronic(More)