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The alpha-hemolysin gene from Staphylococcus aureus, excluding the 5' region encoding the hydrophobic leader sequence, was amplified from genomic DNA. The identity of the disputed C terminus has been confirmed and revisions made to the internal sequence. The hemolysin is expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli and has been purified to homogeneity from(More)
The alpha-hemolysin (alpha HL) from Staphylococcus aureus causes the lysis of susceptible cells such as rabbit erythrocytes (rRBCs). Lysis is associated with the formation of a hexameric pore in the plasma membrane. Here we show that truncation mutants of alpha HL missing 2 to 22 N-terminal amino acids form oligomers on the surfaces of rRBCs but fail to(More)
The alpha-hemolysin (alpha HL) polypeptide is secreted by Staphylococcus aureus as a water-soluble monomer that assembles into lipid bilayers to form cylindrical heptameric pores 1-2 nm in effective internal diameter. We have individually replaced each charged residue (79 of 293 amino acids) and four neutral residues in alpha HL with cysteine, which is not(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of the mechanisms by which certain water-soluble proteins can assemble into lipid bilayers are relevant to several areas of biology, including the biosynthesis of membrane and secreted proteins, virus membrane fusion and the action of immune proteins such as complement and perforin. The alpha-hemolysin (alpha HL) protein, an exotoxin(More)
A cDNA clone encoding a 333-amino acid hemoglobin was isolated from the nematode Pseudoterranova decipiens. The protein contains an 18-amino acid hydrophobic signal sequence and has a calculated mass of 37.6 kDa in the mature form. The predicted protein reveals an internal duplication of a 154-amino acid domain (51% identity). Both domains have significant(More)
BACKGROUND There is a pressing need for new sensors that can detect a variety of analytes, ranging from simple ions to complex compounds and even microorganisms. The devices should offer sensitivity, speed, reversibility and selectivity. Given these criteria, protein pores, remodeled so that their transmembrane conductances are modulated by the association(More)
Drosophila heat shock activator protein, a rare transacting factor which is induced upon heat shock to bind specifically to the heat shock regulatory sequence in vivo, has been purified from shocked cells to more than 95 percent homogeneity by sequence-specific duplex oligonucleotide affinity chromatography. The purified protein has a relative molecular(More)
The macerated stillborn fetus represents at least one third of all perinatal deaths. Microscopic examination of these specimens is often unrewarding. We have reported a clinically unsuspected cytomegalovirus infection in a second trimester macerated fetus. Cells suggestive of CMV inclusions were identified by light microscopy, but electron microscopy(More)
Staphylococcal alpha-toxin is a 293-residue, single-chain polypeptide that spontaneously assembles into a heptameric pore in target cell membranes. To identify the pore-forming domain, substitution mutants have been produced in which single cysteine residues were introduced throughout the toxin molecule. By attaching the environmentally sensitive dye(More)