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To test the hypothesis that spontaneous changes in cerebral blood flow are primarily induced by changes in arterial pressure and that cerebral autoregulation is a frequency-dependent phenomenon, we measured mean arterial pressure in the finger and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) during supine rest and acute hypotension induced(More)
The principal objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acclimatization to moderate altitude (2,500 m) plus training at low altitude (1,250 m), "living high-training low," improves sea-level performance in well-trained runners more than an equivalent sea-level or altitude control. Thirty-nine competitive runners (27 men, 12 women) completed 1)(More)
Orthostatic intolerance occurs commonly after spaceflight, and important aspects of the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We studied 14 individuals supine and standing before and after three space shuttle missions of 9-14 days. After spaceflight, 9 of the 14 (64%) crew members could not complete a 10-min stand test that all completed preflight. Pre- and(More)
Occupational or recreational exercise reduces mortality from cardiovascular disease. The potential mechanisms for this reduction may include changes in blood pressure (BP) and autonomic control of the circulation. Therefore, we conducted the present long-term longitudinal study to quantify the dose-response relationship between the volume and intensity of(More)
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that intermittent normobaric hypoxia at rest is a sufficient stimulus to elicit changes in physiological measures associated with improved performance in highly trained distance runners. Fourteen national-class distance runners completed a 4-wk regimen (5:5-min hypoxia-to-normoxia ratio for 70 min, 5 times/wk)(More)
Acclimatization to moderate high altitude accompanied by training at low altitude (living high-training low) has been shown to improve sea level endurance performance in accomplished, but not elite, runners. Whether elite athletes, who may be closer to the maximal structural and functional adaptive capacity of the respiratory (i.e., oxygen transport from(More)
Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) refers to the discontinuous use of normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia, in an attempt to reproduce some of the key features of altitude acclimatization, with the ultimate goal to improve sea-level athletic performance. In general, IHT can be divided into two different strategies: (1) providing hypoxia at rest with the primary(More)
Moderate-altitude living (2,500 m), combined with low-altitude training (1,250 m) (i.e., live high-train low), results in a significantly greater improvement in maximal O2 uptake (V(02)max) and performance over equivalent sea-level training. Although the mean improvement in group response with this "high-low" training model is clear, the individual response(More)
BACKGROUND Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of(More)