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In the United States, 48 million adults smoke 3.5-5 x 10(11) cigarettes/year. Many cigarettes are smoked in private residences, causing regular environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to roughly 31 million nonsmokers (11% of the US population), including 16 million juveniles. (Upper bound estimates are 53 million exposed nonsmokers including 28 million(More)
Recent studies, primarily in Europe, have reported associations between respiratory symptoms and residential proximity to traffic; however, few have measured traffic pollutants or provided information about local air quality. We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2001. Information on current bronchitis symptoms(More)
UNLABELLED Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative(More)
This paper addresses the impact of California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the composition and reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions. Significant changes to gasoline properties that occurred in the first half of 1996 included an increase in oxygen content; decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents; and(More)
This study shows that residual nicotine from tobacco smoke sorbed to indoor surfaces reacts with ambient nitrous acid (HONO) to form carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Substantial levels of TSNAs were measured on surfaces inside a smoker's vehicle. Laboratory experiments using cellulose as a model indoor material yielded a > 10-fold(More)
We measured the emissions of 26 gas-phase organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a model room that simulates realistic conditions in residences and offices. Exposure-relevant emission factors (EREFs), which include the effects of sorption and re-emission over a 24-h period, were calculated by mass balance from measured compound(More)
BACKGROUND Indoor air pollutants (IAPs) cause multiple health impacts. Prioritizing mitigation options that differentially affect individual pollutants and comparing IAPs with other environmental health hazards require a common metric of harm. OBJECTIVES Our objective was to demonstrate a methodology to quantify and compare health impacts from IAPs. The(More)
UNLABELLED   The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of 15 cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than(More)
BACKGROUND There is broad consensus regarding the health impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, yet considerable ambiguity exists about the nature and consequences of thirdhand smoke (THS). OBJECTIVES We introduce definitions of THS and THS exposure and review recent findings about constituents, indoor sorption-desorption dynamics, and(More)