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In the United States, 48 million adults smoke 3.5-5 x 10(11) cigarettes/year. Many cigarettes are smoked in private residences, causing regular environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to roughly 31 million nonsmokers (11% of the US population), including 16 million juveniles. (Upper bound estimates are 53 million exposed nonsmokers including 28 million(More)
We measured the emissions of 26 gas-phase organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a model room that simulates realistic conditions in residences and offices. Exposure-relevant emission factors (EREFs), which include the effects of sorption and re-emission over a 24-h period, were calculated by mass balance from measured compound(More)
Recent studies, primarily in Europe, have reported associations between respiratory symptoms and residential proximity to traffic; however, few have measured traffic pollutants or provided information about local air quality. We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2001. Information on current bronchitis symptoms(More)
This study shows that residual nicotine from tobacco smoke sorbed to indoor surfaces reacts with ambient nitrous acid (HONO) to form carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Substantial levels of TSNAs were measured on surfaces inside a smoker's vehicle. Laboratory experiments using cellulose as a model indoor material yielded a > 10-fold(More)
UNLABELLED Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative(More)
UNLABELLED Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m3 room ventilated at approximately 0.5/h. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded(More)
BACKGROUND There is broad consensus regarding the health impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, yet considerable ambiguity exists about the nature and consequences of thirdhand smoke (THS). OBJECTIVES We introduce definitions of THS and THS exposure and review recent findings about constituents, indoor sorption-desorption dynamics, and(More)
Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if(More)