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Disinhibition of neurons in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) elicits sympathetically mediated tachycardia in rats through activation of the brain stem raphe pallidus (RP), and this same mechanism appears to be largely responsible for the increases in heart rate (HR) seen in air jet stress in this species. Neurons projecting to the RP from(More)
Emotional stress provokes a stereotyped pattern of autonomic and endocrine changes that is highly conserved across diverse mammalian species. Nearly 50 years ago, a specific region of the hypothalamus, the hypothalamic defense area, was defined by the discovery that electrical stimulation in this area evoked changes that replicated this pattern. Attention(More)
BACKGROUND Although the hypothalamic orexin system is known to regulate appetitive behaviors and promote wakefulness and arousal (Sakurai, 2007 [56]), this system may also be important in adaptive and pathological anxiety/stress responses (Suzuki et al., 2005 [4]). In a recent study, we demonstrated that CSF orexin levels were significantly higher in(More)
Activation of neurons in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) appears to generate the sympathetically mediated tachycardia seen in experimental stress in rats. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of neurons in the area of the medullary raphe pallidus (RP) in the tachycardia caused by stimulation of the DMH. The cardiovascular(More)
The N-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav 2.2) has gained immense prominence in the treatment of chronic pain. While decreased channel function is ultimately anti-nociceptive, directly targeting the channel can lead to multiple adverse side effects. Targeting modulators of channel activity may facilitate improved analgesic properties associated with(More)
Sympathetically mediated tachycardia is a characteristic feature of the physiological response to emotional or psychological stress in mammals. Activation of neurons in the region of the dorsomedial hypothalamus appears to play a key role in the integration of this response. Tachycardia evoked by chemical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus can be(More)
PURPOSE Intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation has recently been identified as a risk factor for glaucoma progression. Further, decreases in intracranial pressure (ICP), with postulated increases in the translaminar pressure gradient across the lamina cribrosa, has been reported in glaucoma patients. We hypothesized that circadian fluctuations in IOP and(More)
Acute hypercapnia (elevated arterial CO(2)/H(+)) is a suffocation signal that is life threatening and rapidly mobilizes adaptive changes in breathing and behavioral arousal in order to restore acid-base homeostasis. Severe hypercapnia, seen in respiratory disorders (eg, asthma or bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)), also results in(More)
Genomic studies of the pediatric ocular tumor retinoblastoma are paving the way for development of targeted therapies. Robust model systems such as orthotopic xenografts are necessary for testing such therapeutics. One system involves bioluminescence imaging of luciferase-expressing human retinoblastoma cells injected into the vitreous of newborn rat eyes.(More)
PURPOSE Visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a health concern for long-duration spaceflight, and a proposed risk factor is elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). Our goal was to use finite element modeling to simulate how elevated ICP and interindividual differences affect tissue deformation within the optic nerve head (ONH). (More)