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Central (visceral) obesity is more closely associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than is peripheral [subcutaneous (sc)] obesity, but the underlying mechanism for this pathophysiological difference is largely unknown. To understand the molecular basis of this difference, we sequenced 10,437 expressed sequence tags(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are dietary lipid sensors that regulate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The hypolipidemic effects of the fibrate drugs and the antidiabetic effects of the glitazone drugs in humans are due to activation of the alpha (NR1C1) and gamma (NR1C3) subtypes, respectively. By contrast, the therapeutic(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 has been recently characterized as a potent metabolic regulator. Systemic administration of FGF-21 reduced plasma glucose and triglycerides to near normal levels in genetically compromised diabetic rodents. Importantly, these effects were durable and did not come at the expense of weight gain, hypoglycemia, or mitogenicity.(More)
Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the salivary secretions of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum). It shows 53% sequence similarity to glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Unlike GLP-1, exendin-4 has a prolonged glucose-lowering action in vivo. We compared the potency and duration of glucose-lowering effects of exendin-4 and GLP-1 in(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Inositol is a major component of the intracellular mediators of insulin action. To investigate the possible role of altered inositol metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to measure the myo-inositol and chiro-inositol content of urine specimens from normal(More)
High-resolution analyses of a late Holocene core from Kettle Lake in North Dakota reveal coeval fluctuations in loss-on-ignition carbonate content, percentage of grass pollen, and charcoal flux. These oscillations are indicative of climate-fuel-fire cycles that have prevailed on the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for most of the late Holocene. High charcoal(More)
Adiponectin is an adipose-specific plasma protein whose plasma concentrations are decreased in obese subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. This protein possesses putative antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we have analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta),(More)
The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP III)1 identified the metabolic syndrome as a multiplex risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is deserving of more clinical attention. Subsequently, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), in collaboration with the American Heart Association (AHA),(More)
The manifestation of major climatic events such as the timing of deglaciation and whether, or not, the Younger Dryas affected Andean systems has garnered considerable recent attention. Even the Holocene is rapidly emerging as a time of considerable interest in Neotropical palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology. The Holocene of the Neotropics is now revealed as(More)
Increased coexistence of Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) suggests that insulin resistance abets neurodegenerative processes, but linkage mechanisms are obscure. Here, we examined insulin signaling factors in brains of insulin-resistant high-fat-fed mice, ob/ob mice, mice with genetically impaired muscle glucose transport, and(More)