B. B. Newman

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INTRODUCTION Exposure to heat can impact the clinical efficacy and/or safety of transdermal and topical drug products. Understanding these heat effects and designing meaningful in vitro and in vivo methods to study them are of significant value to the development and evaluation of drug products dosed to the skin. AREAS COVERED This review provides an(More)
The benefits of transdermal delivery over the oral route to combat such issues of low bioavailability and limited controlled release opportunities are well known and have been previously discussed by many in the field (Prausnitz et al. (2004) [1]; Hadgraft and Lane (2006) [2]). However, significant challenges faced by developers as a product moves from the(More)
At elevated temperatures, the rate of drug release and skin permeation from transdermal delivery systems (TDS) may be higher than at a normal skin temperature. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of heat on the transdermal delivery of two model drugs, nicotine and fentanyl, from matrix-type TDSs with different formulations, using in vitro(More)
It is essential as well as challenging to develop a reliable in vitro release testing method for determining whether differences in release profiles exist between qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent ophthalmic ointment formulations. There is a lack of regulatory guidance on in vitro release testing methods for ophthalmic formulations. Three(More)
The investigation of semisolid ophthalmic ointments is challenging due to their complex physicochemical properties and the unique anatomy of the human eye. Using Lotemax® as a model ophthalmic ointment, three different manufacturing processes and two excipient sources (Fisher® (OWP) and Fougera® (NWP)) were used to prepare loteprednol etabonate ointments(More)
Performance of a transdermal delivery system (TDS) can be affected by exposure to elevated temperature, which can lead to unintended safety issues. This study investigated TDS and skin temperatures and their relationship in vivo, characterized the effective thermal resistance of skin, and identified the in vitro diffusion cell conditions that would(More)
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