B. Awad

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More than 50% of all spinal cord injury (SCI) cases are at the cervical level and usually result in the impaired ability to breathe. This is caused by damage to descending bulbospinal inspiratory tracts and the phrenic motor neurons which innervate the diaphragm. Most investigations have utilized a lateral C2 hemisection model of cervical SCI to study the(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the basic principles and techniques of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and provide information and evidence regarding its applications in spinal cord injury clinical rehabilitation. METHODS A review of the available current and historical literature regarding TMS was conducted, and a discussion of its potential use in spinal(More)
OBJECTIVE To review central nervous system growth factors and their therapeutic potential and clinical translation into spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as the challenges that have been encountered during clinical development. METHODS A systemic review of the available current and historical literature regarding central nervous system growth factors and(More)
The maintenance of blood gas and pH homeostasis is essential to life. As such breathing, and the mechanisms which control ventilation, must be tightly regulated yet highly plastic and dynamic. However, injury to the spinal cord prevents the medullary areas which control respiration from connecting to respiratory effectors and feedback mechanisms below the(More)
The maintenance of blood gas and pH homeostasis is essential to life. As such breathing, and the mechanisms which control ventilation, must be tightly regulated yet highly plastic and dynamic. However, injury to the spinal cord prevents the medullary areas which control respiration from connecting to respiratory effectors and feedback mechanisms below the(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a vital tool for detection of soft tissue injury (STI) after cervical spine injury (CSI). However, high cost, prolonged imaging time, and limited use in hemodynamically unstable patients necessitates that the utility of MRI in all patients with CSI be scrutinized. METHODS A retrospective review was performed(More)
BACKGROUND Pedicle fractures in the cervical spine are common. They may occur in isolation or in combination with other concomitant fractures. Multiple classification systems have been introduced to provide a clinical framework when approaching these types of fractures; however, these systems do not provide guidelines for optimal treatment. Data regarding(More)
Stem Cells for Recovery of Human Central Nervous System Function. " In response to the Route 28 challenge, we propose a novel combinatorial treatment approach using multiple biological interventions in conjunction with controlled electrical stimulation to enhance the benefits of a cellular replacement strategy. Using an aligned polymer scaffold seeded with(More)
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