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Proper limb growth and patterning requires signals from the zone of polarizing activity in the posterior mesoderm and from the overlying apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Sonic hedgehog and Fgf-4, respectively, have recently been identified as candidates for these signals. We have dissected the roles of these secreted proteins in early limb development by(More)
Reciprocal inductive signals between the endoderm and mesoderm are critical to vertebrate gut development. Sonic hedgehog encodes a secreted protein known to act as an inductive signal in several regions of the developing embryo. In this report, we provide evidence to support the role of Sonic hedgehog and its target genes Bmp-4 and the Abd-B-related Hox(More)
A common form of evolutionary variation between vertebrate taxa is the different numbers of segments that contribute to various regions of the anterior-posterior axis; cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, etc. The term 'transposition' is used to describe this phenomenon. Genetic experiments with homeotic genes in mice have demonstrated that Hox genes are(More)
The fission yeast Sty1 stress-activated MAP kinase is crucial for the cellular response to a variety of stress conditions. Accordingly, sty1- cells are defective in their response to nutrient limitation, lose viability in stationary phase, and are hypersensitive to osmotic stress, oxidative stress, and UV treatment. Some of these phenotypes are caused by(More)
The vertebrate Hox genes have been shown to be important for patterning the primary and secondary axes of the developing vertebrate embryo. The function of these genes along the primary axis of the embryo has been generally interpreted in the context of positional specification and homeotic transformation of axial structures. The way in which these genes(More)
Previous work has implicated the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) in osmotic and oxidative stress responses in the human pathogen Candida albicans. In this study, we have characterized the role of Hog1 in mediating these and other stress responses in C. albicans. We provide evidence that a SAPK-dependent core stress response exists in this(More)
The spacing of feather buds in a tract is thought to arise from the interaction between an inducing signal from the dermis and an inhibitory signal generated in the nascent buds. Local BMP-2 expression in the ectoderm precedes the formation of the ectodermal placodes, which are the first morphological sign of bud differentiation. We have altered the(More)
Deletion of the bacterial two-component response regulator homologue Skn7 results in sensitivity of yeast to oxidizing agents indicating that Skn7 is involved in the response to this type of stress. Here we demonstrate that following oxidative stress, Skn7 regulates the induction of two genes: TRX2, encoding thioredoxin, and a gene encoding thioredoxin(More)
It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cell damage associated with the initiation and progression of many diseases. Consequently, all air-living organisms contain antioxidant enzymes that limit oxidative stress by detoxifying reactive oxygen species, including hydrogen peroxide. However, in eukaryotes, hydrogen peroxide also(More)