Børge Holden

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BACKGROUND Mental illness is more prevalent in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than in the normal population. The association between mental illness and severity of ID is also of importance in the understanding and treatment of maladaptive and challenging behaviours. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between severity of ID(More)
People with mental retardation comprise an overmedicated population. Studies the last 20 years or so indicate that nearly 50% of people with mental retardation receiving care have been using psychotropic medication, in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and/or problem behaviours. The recent years guidelines for prescription of psychotropics have been(More)
Studies in Britain and the US indicate that 10-15% of people with mental retardation show challenging behaviour, like attacking others (aggression), self-injurious behaviour, destruction, and other difficult, disruptive or socially unacceptable acts. Most researchers indicate that challenging behaviour is more common among adolescents and young adults,(More)
The relation between psychiatric symptoms and different types of challenging behaviour in adults with mental retardation was investigated, using an instrument designed for use by non-specialist informants. A sample of 165 persons with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, level of mental retardation, and self-injurious(More)
Increasingly, challenging behaviour is explained by way of psychiatric symptomatology. This poses possible pitfalls. First, the possibility exists that both psychiatric symptoms and challenging behaviour are concurrent expressions of common underlying factors. Second, psychiatric symptoms may be rated as present on the basis of challenging behaviour, which(More)
In addition to explaining challenging behaviour by way of behaviour analytic, functional analyses, challenging behaviour is increasingly explained by way of psychiatric symptomatology. According to some researchers, the two approaches complement each other, as psychiatric symptomatology may form a motivational basis for the individual's response to more(More)
Behavior analysis is a small subfield of psychology, and behavior analysts have tried to explain the modest position. Skinner (e.g. 1974) complained that people prefer mentalistic explanations. Hineline (1990) argued that behavior analysis violates the ”directionality of interpretive talk” that dominates our culture: Even when behavior shows large(More)
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