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Recent studies indicated that lung tissue stress relaxation is well represented by a simple empirical equation involving a power law, t-beta (where t is time). Likewise, tissue impedance is well described by a model having a frequency-independent (constant) phase with impedance proportional to omega-alpha (where omega is angular frequency and alpha is a(More)
Tracheal pressure, central airflow, and alveolar capsule pressures in cardiac lobes were measured in open-chest dogs during 0.1- to 20-Hz pseudorandom forced oscillations applied at the airway opening. In the interval 0.1-4.15 Hz, the input impedance data were fitted by four-parameter models including frequency-independent airway resistance and inertance(More)
Increases in the low attenuation areas (LAA) of chest x-ray computed tomography images in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported to reflect the development of pathological emphysema. We examined the statistical properties of LAA clusters in COPD patients and in healthy subjects. In COPD patients, the percentage of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury are characterized by heterogeneous flooding/collapse of lung tissue. An emerging concept for managing these diseases is to set mechanical ventilation so as to minimize the impact of disease heterogeneity on lung mechanical stress and ventilation distribution. The goal of this study was to(More)
The contribution of airway resistance (Raw) and tissue resistance (Rti) to total lung resistance (RL) during breathing in humans is poorly understood. We have recently developed a method for separating Raw and Rti from measurements of RL and lung elastance (EL) alone. In nine healthy, awake subjects, we applied a broad-band optimal ventilator waveform (OVW)(More)
Recently reported data from mechanical measurements of cultured airway smooth muscle cells show that stiffness of the cytoskeletal matrix is determined by the extent of static contractile stress borne by the cytoskeleton (Wang N, Tolić-Nørrelykke IM, Chen J, Mijailovich SM, Butler JP, Fredberg JJ, and Stamenović D. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 282, C606-C616,(More)
Lung parenchyma is a soft biological material composed of many interacting elements such as the interstitial cells, extracellular collagen–elastin fiber network, and proteoglycan ground substance. The mechanical behavior of this delicate structure is complex showing several mild but distinct types of nonlinearities and a fractal-like long memory stress(More)
8 Cerling et al. reply — Köhler et al. suggest that phenomena other than floral change may be involved in the late Miocene global vegetation change, such as monsoonal dynamics or unnamed “other factors”. Citing evidence from Spain and Pakistan, they do not believe that there is necessarily a synchronicity or a causal link between faunal and vegetation(More)
Measurements of lung resistance and elastance (RL and EL) from 0.1 to 8 Hz reflect both the mean level and pattern of lung constriction. The goal of this study was to establish a relation between a deep inspiration (DI) and the heterogeneity of constriction in healthy versus asthmatic subjects. Constriction pattern was assessed from measurements of the RL(More)