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Adrenomedullin (AM) is an important vasodilator in cerebral circulation, and cerebral endothelial cells are a major source of AM. This in vitro study aimed to determine the AM-induced changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions. AM administration increased, whereas AM antisense oligonucleotide treatment decreased transendothelial electrical resistance.(More)
The central nervous system requires an effective autoregulation of cerebral circulation in order to meet the critical and unusual demands of the brain. In addition, cerebral microvessels has a unique feature, the formation of the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the stability of the brain parenchymal microenvironment. Many factors are known to be(More)
Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel openers protect the piglet brain against ischemic stress. Effects of mitoK(ATP) channel agonists on isolated mitochondria, however, have not been directly examined. We investigated the effects of K(ATP) channel openers and blockers on membrane potential and on the production of reactive oxygen(More)
We investigated the effect of diazoxide on neuronal survival in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Diazoxide pre-treatment induced delayed pre-conditioning and almost entirely attenuated the OGD-induced neuronal death. Diazoxide inhibited succinate dehydrogenase and induced mitochondrial depolarization, free(More)
Mitochondrial responses to ischemic stress play an important role in necrosis and apoptosis of brain cells. Recent studies using several different experimental preparations have shown that activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in mitochondria (mitoK(ATP) channels) is able to protect neurons and astroglia against injury and death. Thus, targeting of(More)
The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is activated by oxidative stress and plays a significant role in postischemic brain injury. We assessed the contribution of PARP activation to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and edema formation after ischemia-reperfusion. In male Wistar rats, global cerebral ischemia was achieved by occluding(More)
1,3-Dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (NS1619), a potent activator of the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel, has been demonstrated to induce preconditioning (PC) in the heart. The aim of our study was to test the delayed PC effect of NS1619 in rat cortical neuronal cultures(More)
We previously found that the production of adrenomedullin (AM) is one magnitude higher in cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) than in the peripheral endothelium and the AM concentration in the cerebral circulation is significantly higher than in other tested parts of the circulation. We also showed that CECs express AM receptors, and AM as an autocrine(More)
We examined the effects of diazoxide, the putative mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel opener, against glutamate excitotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. Cells were treated with diazoxide for 24 hr and then exposed to 200 microM glutamate. Cell viability was measured 24 hr after glutamate(More)
Water homeostasis in the brain is essential for brain function. We have studied how aquaporin (AQP) 1 expression in GP8 immortalized rat brain microvascular endothelial cells is regulated by glucocorticoid. AQP1 protein level was raised by dexamethasone treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The up-regulation of AQP1 protein by(More)