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Injury to neural tissue renders voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels leaky. Even mild axonal trauma initiates Na+ -loading, leading to secondary Ca2+-loading and white matter degeneration. The nodal isoform is Nav1.6 and for Nav1.6-expressing HEK-cells, traumatic whole cell stretch causes an immediate tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+-leak. In stretch-damaged oocyte(More)
In injured neurons, "leaky" voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) underlie dysfunctional excitability that ranges from spontaneous subthreshold oscillations (STO), to ectopic (sometimes paroxysmal) excitation, to depolarizing block. In recombinant systems, mechanical injury to Nav1.6-rich membranes causes cytoplasmic Na(+)-loading and "Nav-CLS", i.e., coupled(More)
Mechanical, ischemic, and inflammatory injuries to voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav)-rich membranes of axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier render Nav channels dangerously leaky. By what means? The behavior of recombinant Nav1.6 (Wang et al., 2009) leads us to postulate that, in neuropathologic conditions, structural degradation of axolemmal bilayer(More)
Using a coarse grained molecular dynamics model of a solvent-surfactant system, we study the effects of stretching on the permeability of water across a lipid bilayer. The density profile, free energy profile, diffusion profile, and tail ordering parameter were computed for a set of stretched membranes maintained at constant area. We computed the water(More)
Neural tissue injuries render voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) leaky, thereby altering excitability, disrupting propagation and causing neuropathic pain related ectopic activity. In both recombinant systems and native excitable membranes, membrane damage causes the kinetically-coupled activation and inactivation processes of Nav channels to undergo(More)
Sick excitable cells (ie, Nav channel-expressing cells injured by trauma, ischemia, inflammatory, and other conditions) typically exhibit "acquired sodium channelopathies" which, we argue, reflect bleb-damaged membranes rendering their Nav channels "leaky." The situation is excitotoxic because untreated Nav leak exacerbates bleb damage. Fast Nav(More)
The ceaseless opening and closing of the voltage-gated channels (VGCs) underlying cardiac rhythmicity is controlled, in each VGC, by four mobile voltage sensors embedded in bilayer. Every action potential necessitates extensive packing/repacking of voltage sensor domains with adjacent interacting lipid molecules. This renders VGC activity mechanosensitive(More)
We report on extensive molecular dynamics simulations on systems of soft spheres of functionality f, i.e., particles that are capable of bonding irreversibly with a maximum of f other particles. These bonds are randomly distributed throughout the system and imposed with probability p. At a critical concentration of bonds, p(c) approximately 0.2488 for f=6,(More)
The rupture of fluid membrane vesicles with a steady ramp of micropipette suction has been shown to produce a distribution of breakage tensions, with a mean that rises rapidly with tension rate. Starting from a lattice model that incorporates the essential features of the lipid bilayers held together with hydrophobic forces, and developing it to handle(More)