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Chronic pancreatitis is a persistent inflammatory disease of the pancreas, in which the digestive protease trypsin has a fundamental pathogenetic role. Here we have analyzed the gene encoding the trypsin-degrading enzyme chymotrypsin C (CTRC) in German subjects with idiopathic or hereditary chronic pancreatitis. Two alterations in this gene, p.R254W and(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Bile reflux into the pancreas is a common cause of acute pancreatitis and, although the bile can reach both acinar and ductal cells, most research to date has focused on the acinar cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bile acids on(More)
Allergic contact dermatitis and its animal model, contact hypersensitivity (CHS), are T cell-mediated inflammatory skin diseases induced by contact allergens. Though numerous cellular and molecular players are known, the mechanism of chemical-induced sensitization remains poorly understood. Here, we identify neutrophils as crucial players in the(More)
Cremophor EL and RH40 are widely used excipients in oral and intravenous drug formulations such as Taxol infusion to improve drug dissolution and absorption. Studies indicate that Cremophors, especially EL, have toxic side effects, but few data are available on endothelial and epithelial cells, which form biological barriers and are directly exposed to(More)
BACKGROUND Cytoplasmic lipid-droplets are common inclusions of eukaryotic cells. Lipid-droplet binding thalidomide analogs (2,6-dialkylphenyl-4/5-amino-substituted-5,6,7-trifluorophthalimides) with potent anticancer activities were synthesized. RESULTS Cytotoxicity was detected in different cell lines including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocellular(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The effects of trypsin on pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) vary among species and depend on the localization of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). We compared PAR-2 localization in human and guinea-pig PDECs, and used isolated guinea pig ducts to study the effects of trypsin and a PAR-2 agonist on bicarbonate secretion. (More)
The nasal pathway represents an alternative route for non-invasive systemic administration of drugs. The main advantages of nasal drug delivery are the rapid onset of action, the avoidance of the first-pass metabolism in the liver and the easy applicability. In vitro cell culture systems offer an opportunity to model biological barriers. Our aim was to(More)
In recent years, a new cell-based high throughput paradigm has emerged, which seeks to identify novel, pharmacologically active cytoprotective compounds. The essence of this approach is to create experimental models of cell injury relevant for a particular disease by establishing in vitro cell-based models, followed by high-throughput testing of compounds(More)
PURPOSE The main function of the lacrimal gland is to produce the most aqueous component of the tear film covering the surfaces of the cornea and the conjunctiva. Studies have been conducted that characterize the mixed fluid and protein secretion of isolated acini, but no methods have been developed to characterize lacrimal gland ductal cell (LGDC)(More)