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Although neurotrophins (NTs) have been extensively studied as neuronal survival factors in some areas of the central nervous system, little is known about their function or cellular targets in the hypothalamus. To understand their functional significance and sites of action on hypothalamic neurons, we examined the effects of their cognate ligands on(More)
Conventional dendritic cells enter lymph nodes by migrating from peripheral tissues via the lymphatic route, whereas plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), also called IFN-producing cells (IPC), are described to gain nodes from blood via the high endothelial venules. We demonstrate here that IPC/pDC migrate in the afferent lymph of two large mammals. In sheep,(More)
HLA-G is a nonclassical MHC class I molecule that plays a major role in maternal-fetal tolerance. Four membrane-bound (HLA-G1 to -G4) and two soluble (HLA-G5, and -G6) proteins are generated by alternative splicing. Only HLA-G1 has been extensively studied in terms of both expression and function. We provide evidence here that HLA-G2, -G3, and -G4 truncated(More)
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 regulates actin polymerization and contributes to cytotoxicity by natural killer (NK) cells. An open question is how Vav1 becomes activated and what receptor can signal upstream of actin cytoskeleton rearrangement upon NK cell contact with target cells. Using transfected insect cells that express ligands of human(More)
Detrimental inflammation of the lungs is a hallmark of severe influenza virus infections. Endothelial cells are the source of cytokine amplification, although mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. Here, using combined pharmacological and gene-deletion approaches, we show that plasminogen controls lung inflammation and pathogenesis of infections(More)
Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory infections, which are highly contagious and occur as seasonal epidemic and sporadic pandemic outbreaks. Innate immune response is activated shortly after infection with influenza A viruses (IAV), affording effective protection of the host. However, this response should be tightly regulated, as insufficient(More)
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection causes acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) which can result in hospitalization of both children and adults. To date, no antiviral or vaccine is available for this common viral infection. Immunomodulators could represent an interesting strategy for the treatment of severe viral infection. Recently, the role of(More)
T cell activation requires both specific recognition of the peptide-MHC complex by the TCR and additional signals delivered by costimulatory receptors. We have identified rainbow trout sequences similar to CD28 (rbtCD28) and CTLA4 (rbtCTLA4). rbtCD28 and rbtCTLA4 are composed of an extracellular Ig-superfamily V domain, a transmembrane region, and a(More)
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