Azzam A Maghazachi

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Natural killer (NK) cells represent a major subpopulation of lymphocytes. These cells have effector functions as they recognize and kill transformed cells as well as microbially infected cells. In addition, alloreactive NK cells have been successfully used to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia and other hematological malignancies. NK cells are also(More)
Using flow cytometric and RNase protection assays, this study examined the expression of chemokine receptors in nonactivated natural killer (NK) cells and compared this expression with NK cells activated with interleukin (IL)-2, which either adhered to plastic flasks (AD) or did not adhere (NA). None of the NK cell subsets expressed CXCR2, CXCR5, or CCR5.(More)
We describe here that members of the CC chemokines exhibit biological activities other than chemotaxis. Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and RANTES, but not interleukin (IL)-8, induce the generation of cytolytic cells, designated here as CHAK (CC chemokine-activated killer) cells to distinguish(More)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are bioactive lipid mediators, which are known to play major roles in allergic reactions as well as in tumor pathogenesis. Here, the biological activities and signal pathways of these lysophospholipids (LPLs) in dendritic cells (DCs) were characterized further. Flow cytometric and immunoblot(More)
We describe here the protein expression of H4 histamine receptor in cells of the innate immune system, which include NK cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs). Anti-H4R specifically stained permeabilized NK cells, THP-1 clone 15 monocytes, and DCs. This binding was inhibited by incubating anti-H4R Ab with its corresponding peptide. Histamine induced NK(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) generated by a single-step exposure of human monocytes to type I IFN and GM-CSF (IFN-DCs) are endowed with potent immunostimulatory activities and a distinctive migratory response to specific chemokines. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the biologically active metabolite of(More)
NK cells respond to various chemokines, suggesting that they express receptors for these chemokines. In this paper, we show that IL-2-activated NK (IANK) cells express CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and CCR8, as determined by flow cytometric, immunoblot, and RNase protection assays. Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), the ligand for CCR4, induces the(More)
BACKGROUND Natural killer (NK) cells have both cytolytic and immunoregulatory functions. We recently described that these cells release the inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ. However, the precise identity of the NK cell subset(s) that secrete these cytokines is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To isolate the cells secreting IL-17 and IFN-γ,(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with many different immune cells involved in its pathogenesis, and in particular T cells as the most recognized cell type. Recently, the innate immune system has also been researched for its effect on the disease. Hence, cells of the immune system play vital roles in either ameliorating or exacerbating the(More)
Glatiramer acetate (GA or Copaxone) is a drug used to treat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice and multiple sclerosis in human. Here, we describe a new mechanism of action for this drug. GA enhanced the cytolysis of human NK cells against autologous and allogeneic immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). This drug reduced(More)