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Targeted genome editing technologies have enabled a broad range of research and medical applications. The Cas9 nuclease from the microbial CRISPR-Cas system is targeted to specific genomic loci by a 20 nt guide sequence, which can tolerate certain mismatches to the DNA target and thereby promote undesired off-target mutagenesis. Here, we describe an(More)
One of the recent advances in the epigenetic field is the demonstration that the Tet family of proteins are capable of catalyzing conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) of DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Interestingly, recent studies have shown that 5hmC can be further oxidized by Tet proteins to generate 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine(More)
Meiosis is a germ-cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction. Before the initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps, including the global erasure of DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) in CpG-rich DNA. Although several(More)
Mammalian oocytes can reprogram somatic cells into a totipotent state enabling animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, the majority of SCNT embryos fail to develop to term due to undefined reprogramming defects. Here, we identify histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) of donor cell genome as a major barrier for efficient(More)
With the exception of imprinted genes and certain repeats, DNA methylation is globally erased during preimplantation development. Recent studies have suggested that Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and DNA replication-dependent dilution both contribute to global paternal DNA demethylation, but demethylation of the maternal genome occurs via(More)
Although global erasure of DNA methylation has been observed in zygotes and primordial germ cells, the responsible enzyme(s) have been elusive. The demonstration that members of the Tet (ten eleven translocation) family of proteins are capable of catalyzing conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) of DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) raises the possibility(More)
The gene expression pattern of differentiated oocytes is reprogrammed into that of totipotent preimplantation embryos before and/or after fertilization. To elucidate the mechanisms of genome reprogramming, we investigated histone H3 lysine 79 dimethylation (H3K79me2) and trimethylation (H3K79me3) in oocytes and preimplantation embryos via(More)
BACKGROUND Mammals have two types of full-grown oocytes: those with germinal vesicles (GVs) in which the chromatin is condensed and surrounds the nucleolus (surrounded-nucleolus (SN)-type) and those in which the chromatin is less condensed and does not surround the nucleolus (non-surrounded-nucleolus (NSN)-type). Although SN oocytes possess higher meiotic(More)
We isolated a temperature-sensitive mutant with a mutation in mviN, an essential gene in Escherichia coli. At the nonpermissive temperature, mviN mutant cells swelled and burst. An intermediate in murein synthesis, polyprenyl diphosphate-N-acetylmuramic acid-(pentapeptide)-N-acetyl-glucosamine, accumulated in mutant cells. These results indicated that MviN(More)
How the chromatin regulatory landscape in the inner cell mass cells is established from differentially packaged sperm and egg genomes during preimplantation development is unknown. Here, we develop a low-input DNase I sequencing (liDNase-seq) method that allows us to generate maps of DNase I-hypersensitive site (DHS) of mouse preimplantation embryos from(More)