Azucena López-Muñoz

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The IFNs and their receptors have existed in early chordates for approximately 500 million years and represent the early elements in innate and adaptive immunity. Both types I and II IFNs have been discovered in fish, and type I has recently been classified into two groups based on their primary protein sequences. However, the biological activities of fish(More)
TNF-alpha is conserved in all vertebrate classes and has been identified in all taxonomic groups of teleost fish. However, its biological activities and its role in infection are largely unknown. Using two complementary fish models, gilthead seabream and zebrafish, we report here that the main proinflammatory effects of fish TNF-alpha are mediated through(More)
It has long been established that lower vertebrates, most notably fish and amphibians, are resistant to the toxic effect of LPS. Furthermore, the lack of a TLR4 ortholog in some fish species and the lack of the essential costimulatory molecules for LPS activation via TLR4 (i.e., myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) and CD14) in all the fish genomes and(More)
Interferons (IFNs) and their receptors exist in all classes of vertebrates, where they represent early elements in innate and adaptive immunity. Both types I and II IFNs have been discovered in fish and type I IFN has recently been classified into two groups based on their primary protein sequences and biological activities. Thus, although groups I and II(More)
In mammals, IFNγ is the only type II IFN member, whereas most bony fish species have two IFNγ genes, namely IFNγ1 and IFNγ2. We report that both zebrafish IFNγ genes were unable to protect zebrafish larvae against viral infection, despite the fact that they moderately induced the expression of antiviral genes, strongly induced pro-inflammatory and antigen(More)
The viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) is the causal agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a worldwide fish disease that is responsible for high mortality in both marine and freshwater species. Infected fish suffer from encephalitis, which leads to abnormal swimming behavior and extensive cellular vacuolation and neuronal degeneration in the(More)
TNFα is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine with a key role in the activation of the immune system to fight viral infections. Despite its antiviral role, a few viruses might utilize the host produced TNFα to their benefit. Some recent reports have shown that anti-TNFα therapies could be utilized to treat certain viral infections. However, the underlying(More)
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited disorder with mutations affecting telomerase or telomeric proteins. DC patients usually die of bone marrow failure. Here we show that genetic depletion of the telomerase RNA component (TR) in the zebrafish results in impaired myelopoiesis, despite normal development of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The(More)
In recent years zebrafish has emerged as an excellent model for studying the Cxcl8 signaling pathway in inflammation elicited upon tissue damage or infection. Zebrafish has two true homologs of mammalian CXCL8, named Cxcl8-l1 and Cxcl8-l2. Previously, we have shown that in wound-associated inflammation, these chemokines are up-regulated and are relevant for(More)