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BACKGROUND Many English language words have been used to describe the acupuncture needle sensation known as de qi, words such as dull, aching, and spreading. However, there is little agreement on which actual words are acceptable as descriptors. In experimental trials of acupuncture in which the needle sensation is an important variable, a quantitative(More)
The difference between superficial and deep needling at acupuncture points has yet to be mapped with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using a 3T MRI, echo planar imaging data were acquired for 17 right-handed healthy volunteer participants. Two fMRI scans of acupuncture needling were taken in random order in a block design, one for superficial(More)
The amygdala is known to play an important role in the response to facial expressions that convey fear. However, it remains unclear whether the amygdala's response to fear reflects its role in the interpretation of danger and threat, or whether it is to some extent activated by all facial expressions of emotion. Previous attempts to address this issue using(More)
The effect of altered endogenous levels of synaptic glutamate on neurotransmission and synaptic dorsal horn Fos expression was determined in rat spinal cord in vitro. The uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (L-PDC, 1mM) was tested against dorsal root-ventral root potentials (DR-VRP), afferent-mediated slow dorsal horn excitatory(More)
This study investigated the role of electrical and chemical synapses in sustaining 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked network activity recorded extracellularly from substantia gelatinosa (SG) of young rat spinal cord in vitro. Superfusion of 4-AP (50 microM) induced two types of activity, the first was observed as large amplitude field population spiking(More)
Although rhythmic behaviour of mammalian spinal ventral horn networks has been extensively studied little is known about oscillogenesis in the spinal dorsal horn. The aims of this in vitro study were to record and determine the underlying mechanisms of potassium-evoked network field oscillations in the substantia gelatinosa of the neonatal rat dorsal horn,(More)
In this paper, we test the performance of a synchronicity estimator widely applied in Neuroscience, phase lag index (PLI), for brain network inference in EEG. We implement the four sphere head model to simulate the volume conduction problem present in EEG recordings and measure the activity at the scalp of surrogate sources located at the brain level. Then,(More)
Findings of amygdala responsiveness to the eye region of fearful faces raise the question of whether eye widening is the only facial cue involved. We used fMRI to investigate the differential amygdala response to fearful versus neutral stimuli for faces, eyes, and for faces in which the eye region was masked. For maximum sensitivity, a block design was(More)
The needling sensation of deqi is considered by most acupuncturists to be an important component of acupuncture, yet neuroimaging research that investigates this needle sensation has been limited. In this study we have investigated the effect of deqi and acute pain needling sensations upon brain fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Seventeen(More)
1. The in vitro hemisected spinal cord from young rat was used to investigate the mechanism of serotoninergic modulation of primary afferent-mediated synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn through activation of the 5-HT3 receptor. 2. Dorsal root-evoked excitatory post-synaptic potentials (DR-EPSPs) were recorded intracellularly from dorsal horn neurones.(More)