Azarakhsh Mokri

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AIMS Opioid substitution treatment has been studied extensively in industrialized countries, but there are relatively few studies in developing/transitional countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of opioid substitution treatment (OST) in less resourced countries. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Purposively selected(More)
Clinical and experimental observations show individual differences in the development of addiction. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predisposes drug reinforcement. Here, modeling striatal-midbrain dopaminergic circuit, we propose a reinforcement learning model for addiction based(More)
Based on the dopamine hypotheses of cocaine addiction and the assumption of decrement of brain reward system sensitivity after long-term drug exposure, we propose a computational model for cocaine addiction. Utilizing average reward temporal difference reinforcement learning, we incorporate the elevation of basal reward threshold after long-term drug(More)
Glutamate is critically involved in opioid addiction. It has been suggested that neurotransmitter receptors expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect brain status. In the present study, using Real-time PCR, the mRNA expression of NR2D and NR3B subunits of NMDA glutamate receptor has been investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of four(More)
In recent years, interest in shortening of opioid detoxification has increased with the rising demands to find more cost-effective approaches for treatment of opioid dependence. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of administration of high doses of buprenorphine during 24 h in the management of acute opioid withdrawal. A total of 40(More)
BACKGROUND In general, information about women who use drugs comes from studies performed in the West. Whether women in countries such as Iran are likely to enter drug treatment or how they will respond is not known. PURPOSE To examine the short-term impact of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on drug use, dependence, social functioning, crime, and(More)
AIM Methamphetamine use is a new health concern in Iran, the most populated Persian Gulf country. However, there is no well-documented literature. The current study objectives were to systematically review all published English and Persian studies of the prevalence of methamphetamine use, the general physical and psychiatric-related harms and the(More)
Gradual adaptations of the brain to repeated drug exposure may induce addiction. Brain mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is the site of the effect of addictive drugs. The dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect the status of homologous brain receptors. In the present study, the effects of opioid addiction on mRNA expression of dopamine(More)
BACKGROUND Although several studies have been performed to evaluate the personality differences amongst smokers with different dependency levels, they do not use constant criteria for patients selection. The inconsistencies between some of these findings suggest the need for using solid criteria such as the modified Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ)(More)
AIMS Iran faces parallel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and injection drug use epidemics; more than 62% of known HIV cases occur among injection drug users (IDU). We conducted a formative study of IDU in Tehran to explore risk behavior in the wake of the recent harm reduction efforts. PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN Key informant interviews (n = 40), focus(More)