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In recent years, interest in shortening of opioid detoxification has increased with the rising demands to find more cost-effective approaches for treatment of opioid dependence. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of administration of high doses of buprenorphine during 24 h in the management of acute opioid withdrawal. A total of 40(More)
Clinical and experimental observations show individual differences in the development of addiction. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predisposes drug reinforcement. Here, modeling striatal-midbrain dopaminergic circuit, we propose a reinforcement learning model for addiction based(More)
AIMS Opioid substitution treatment has been studied extensively in industrialized countries, but there are relatively few studies in developing/transitional countries. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of opioid substitution treatment (OST) in less resourced countries. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Purposively selected(More)
AIMS Iran faces parallel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and injection drug use epidemics; more than 62% of known HIV cases occur among injection drug users (IDU). We conducted a formative study of IDU in Tehran to explore risk behavior in the wake of the recent harm reduction efforts. PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN Key informant interviews (n = 40), focus(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) may alter dopamine release in the brain. Activation of D2-dopamine receptors may suppress NO synthase, and inhibition of NO synthase prevents behaviors induced by psychostimulants. We have investigated the modulatory actions of the precursor of NO synthesis (L-arginine) and the broad-spectrum NO synthesis inhibitor(More)
Based on the dopamine hypotheses of cocaine addiction and the assumption of decrement of brain reward system sensitivity after long-term drug exposure, we propose a computational model for cocaine addiction. Utilizing average reward temporal difference reinforcement learning, we incorporate the elevation of basal reward threshold after long-term drug(More)
BACKGROUND Although several studies have been performed to evaluate the personality differences amongst smokers with different dependency levels, they do not use constant criteria for patients selection. The inconsistencies between some of these findings suggest the need for using solid criteria such as the modified Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ)(More)
Gradual adaptations of the brain to repeated drug exposure may induce addiction. Brain mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is the site of the effect of addictive drugs. The dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect the status of homologous brain receptors. In the present study, the effects of opioid addiction on mRNA expression of dopamine(More)
Glutamate is critically involved in opioid addiction. It has been suggested that neurotransmitter receptors expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes may reflect brain status. In the present study, using Real-time PCR, the mRNA expression of NR2D and NR3B subunits of NMDA glutamate receptor has been investigated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of four(More)
In Iran women are less likely than men to use drugs, but suffer greater morbidity, are stigmatised, and are less likely to seek treatment. In 2007, we established a clinic in Tehran for drug using women. We report here on our study of the 97 women who registered in the first year of operation. We profiled these women: demographics, drug use, risk behaviour,(More)