Learn More
A calibration-free, high-resolution ADC designed for bioluminescence sensing employs an extended-counting architecture in which the residual error from a second-order incremental SigmaDelta modulator is encoded using a successive approximation ADC. The ADC has been integrated in 0.18-mum CMOS technology and achieves a dynamic range of 90.1 dB and a peak(More)
A potentially serious device integration problem exists with metal-oxide high-/spl kappa/ dielectrics such as HfO/sub 2/ and ZrO/sub 2/. The problem is that an applied voltage causes these materials to develop a residual polarization that can remain long after the voltage is removed. This phenomenon, called dielectric relaxation (DR), occurs in all(More)
Contamination of water by heavy metals is a global problem. Nowadays everybody knows that heavy metal ions consist of iron, lead, manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium, and nickel and so on they are common contaminants in wastewater and known to be toxic and carcinogenic that lead to many problems for human and water environment. In this research, experiments(More)
  • 1