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Chlorophyll degradation is an aspect of leaf senescence, which is an active process to salvage nutrients from old tissues. non-yellow coloring1 (nyc1) is a rice (Oryza sativa) stay-green mutant in which chlorophyll degradation during senescence is impaired. Pigment analysis revealed that degradation of not only chlorophylls but also light-harvesting complex(More)
Tetrapyrroles play vital roles in various biological processes, including photosynthesis and respiration. Higher plants contain four classes of tetrapyrroles, namely, chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, and phytochromobilin. All of the tetrapyrroles are derived from a common biosynthetic pathway. Here we review recent progress in the research of tetrapyrrole(More)
Yellowing, which is related to the degradation of chlorophyll and chlorophyll-protein complexes, is a notable phenomenon during leaf senescence. NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1) in rice encodes a membrane-localized short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) that is thought to represent a chlorophyll b reductase necessary for catalyzing the first step of(More)
Chlorophyll b is an ubiquitous accessory pigment in land plants, green algae, and prochlorophytes. Its biosynthesis plays a key role in the adaptation to various light environments. We isolated six chlorophyll b-less mutants by insertional mutagenesis by using the nitrate reductase or argininosuccinate lyase genes as tags and examined the rearrangement of(More)
The plastid plays a vital role in various cellular activities within plant cells including photosynthesis and other metabolic pathways. It is believed that the functional status of the plastid is somehow monitored by the nucleus to optimize the expression of genes encoding plastid proteins. The currently dominant model for plastid-derived signaling(More)
Chlorophyll metabolism has been extensively studied with various organisms, and almost all of the chlorophyll biosynthetic genes have been identified in higher plants. However, only the gene for 3,8-divinyl protochlorophyllide a 8-vinyl reductase (DVR), which is indispensable for monovinyl chlorophyll synthesis, has not been identified yet. In this study,(More)
The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is the most abundant membrane protein in green plants, and its degradation is a crucial process for the acclimation to high light conditions and for the recovery of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) during senescence. However, the molecular mechanism of LHCII degradation is largely(More)
Oxygenation of pheophorbide a is a key step in chlorophyll breakdown. Several biochemical studies have implicated that this step was catalyzed by an iron-containing and ferredoxin-dependent monooxygenase, pheophorbide a oxygenase (PaO). It has been proposed that inhibition of its activity arrests the chlorophyll breakdown and leads to the "stay-green"(More)
Chlorophyll b is a photosynthetic antenna pigment found in prochlorophytes and chlorophytes. In chlorophytes, its biosynthesis regulates the photosynthetic antenna size. Chlorophyll b is synthesized from chlorophyll a in a two-step oxygenation reaction by chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO). In this study, we first identified the entire sequence of a(More)
A retrotransposon was isolated and characterized from strain 15A of the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata, which causes black spot disease in certain cultivars of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. The element, which we have named REAL (Retrotransposon of Alternaria alternata), is 6046 bp in size and contains(More)