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To comprehend figurative utterances such as metaphor or sarcasm, a listener must both judge the literal meaning of the statement and infer the speaker's intended meaning (mentalizing; Amodio and Frith, 2006). To delineate the neural substrates of pragmatic comprehension, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 20 normal adult(More)
BACKGROUND The increasing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in brain researches has led to growing concern over incidental findings (IFs). To establish a practical management protocol for IFs, it is useful to know the actual prevalence and problems of IF management. In the present study, we report the prevalence proportion and some handling problems(More)
UNLABELLED In alphabetic languages, the deficit of the phonological awareness is considered as the core deficit in developmental dyslexia. However, the role of phonological awareness in the acquisition of reading Japanese kana, the transparent, mora-based phonogram, has not been understood completely. We examine the abilities of Japanese dyslexic children(More)
The understanding of sarcasm reflects a complex process, which involves recognizing the beliefs of the speaker. There is a clear association between deficits in mentalizing, which is the ability to understand other people's behavior in terms of their mental state, and the understanding of sarcasm in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. This(More)
Two male patients (a child and an adult) with congenital mirror movement were studied using functional MRI (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Bilateral primary sensorimotor cortices were activated during unilateral hand gripping on fMRI when the child patient was 8 years old andthe adult was 37 years old. Bilateral motor evoked potentials(More)
Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate abstract phonological representations of language and is crucial to the process of learning to read. The neural substrates underlying this appear to be modality-independent at least in alphabetic languages. Japanese language has different orthographic "kana" system, in which each "kana" character strictly(More)
Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to(More)
PURPOSE To examine neural response to spoken and printed language in children with speech sound errors (SSE). METHOD Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare processing of auditorily and visually presented words and pseudowords in 17 children with SSE, ages 8;6[years;months] through 10;10, with 17 matched controls. RESULTS When(More)
BACKGROUND The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. METHODS Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were(More)
The purpose of the study was to identify structural brain differences in school-age children with residual speech sound errors. Voxel based morphometry was used to compare gray and white matter volumes for 23 children with speech sound errors, ages 8;6-11;11, and 54 typically speaking children matched on age, oral language, and IQ. We hypothesized that(More)