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We conducted a genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Icelandic cases and controls, and we found that a previously described variant in the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) gene conferred the most significant risk. In addition to confirming two recently identified risk variants, we identified a variant in the CDKAL1 gene that(More)
Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This(More)
We recently described an association between risk of type 2diabetes and variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2; formerly TCF4), with a population attributable risk (PAR) of 17%-28% in three populations of European ancestry. Here, we refine the definition of the TCF7L2 type 2diabetes risk variant, HapB(T2D), to the ancestral T allele of a(More)
The evidence for the existence of genetic susceptibility variants for the common form of hypertension ("essential hypertension") remains weak and inconsistent. We sought genetic variants underlying blood pressure (BP) by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS) among African Americans, a population group in the United States that is(More)
OBJECTIVE The FTO gene is one of the most consistently replicated loci for obesity. However, data from populations of African ancestry are limited. We evaluated genetic variation in the FTO gene and investigated associations with obesity in West Africans and African Americans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study samples comprised 968 African Americans(More)
Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify the prevalence of, and risk factors for, diabetic retinopathy and cataracts in patients with type 2 diabetes, and their spouse controls, enrolled from 5 centers in 2 West African countries (Ghana and Nigeria). METHOD The analysis cohort was made up of 840 subjects with type 2 diabetes, and their 191 unaffected spouse controls, who(More)
Chronically elevated blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) is the primary indicator of type 2 diabetes, which has a prevalence that varies considerably by ethnicity in the USA, with African-Americans disproportionately affected. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have significantly enhanced our understanding of the genetic basis of diabetes and related(More)
BACKGROUND: Although designed to predict cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) under-predicts these conditions in African-Americans (AA). Failure of MetSyn in AA is often attributed to their relative absence of hypertriglyceridemia. It is unknown if the African experience with MetSyn will be similar or(More)
ApolipoproteinL1 (APOL1) protects humans and some primates against several African trypanosomes. APOL1 genetic variants strongly associated with kidney disease in African Americans have additional trypanolytic activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the cause of acute African sleeping sickness. We combined genetic, physiological, and biochemical(More)