Learn More
In light of new legislation (e.g., the REACH program in the European Union), several initiatives have recently emerged to increase acceptance of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships [(Q)SARs] to reduce reliance on animal (in vivo) testing. Among the principles for assessing the validity of (Q)SARs is the need for a defined domain of(More)
The goal of eliminating animal testing in the predictive identification of chemicals with the intrinsic ability to cause skin sensitization is an important target, the attainment of which has recently been brought into even sharper relief by the EU Cosmetics Directive and the requirements of the REACH legislation. Development of alternative methods requires(More)
This article presents an overview of electrophilic reaction mechanisms relevant to skin sensitization, with reference to a published skin sensitization test data set for 106 chemicals. Where appropriate to aid the interpretation, additional data on a small number of further compounds are also discussed. It is shown that there is a close correspondence in(More)
Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for the toxicity of 200 phenols to the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, and the validation of the QSARs using a test set of a further 50 compounds, are reported. The phenols are structurally heterogeneous and represent a variety of mechanisms of toxic action including polar narcosis, weak acid(More)
The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five(More)
The molecular basis of chemical allergy is rooted in the ability of an allergen (hapten) to modify endogenous proteins. This mechanistic understanding aided development of screening assays which generate reproducible quantitative and qualitative reactivity data. Such assays use model peptides with a limited number and type of protein nucleophiles, and the(More)
The skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is currently assessed using in vivo methods where the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is typically the method of first choice. Current regulatory initiatives are driving the impetus for the use of in vitro/in silico alternative approaches to provide the relevant information needed for the effective(More)
Skin sensitisation potential is an endpoint that needs to be assessed within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. At present, skin sensitisation hazard is normally identified using in vivo test methods, the favoured approach being the local lymph node assay (LLNA). This method can also provide a measure of relative skin sensitising potency(More)
Skin sensitisation is an important toxicological endpoint. The possibility that chemicals used in the workplace and in consumer products might cause skin sensitisation is a major concern for individuals, for employers and for marketing. In European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) legislation, the sensitising potential should(More)
As part of a European Chemicals Bureau contract relating to the evaluation of (Q)SARs for toxicological endpoints of regulatory importance, we have reviewed and analysed (Q)SARs for skin sensitisation. Here we consider some recently published global (Q)SAR approaches against the OECD principles and present re-analysis of the data. Our analyses indicate that(More)