Ayesha Sania

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BACKGROUND Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting(More)
BACKGROUND National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in(More)
BACKGROUND Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between short maternal stature and outcomes of SGA alone, preterm birth(More)
BACKGROUND Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and(More)
BACKGROUND Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the(More)
Objectives were to examine the growth patterns of preterm and growth-restricted infants and to evaluate the associations of prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with risk of stunting, wasting and underweight. Data from a cohort of HIV-negative pregnant women-infant pairs were collected prospectively in Tanzania. Small for gestational age(More)
Objective:Whether postpartum visits by trained community health workers (CHWs), reduce newborn breastfeeding problems.Method:Community health workers made antenatal and postpartum home visits promoting newborn care practices including breastfeeding. CHWs assessed neonates for adequacy of breastfeeding and provided hands-on support to mothers to establish(More)
BACKGROUND Our objectives were to examine the associations of neonatal and infant mortality with preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and to estimate the partial population attributable risk per cent (pPAR%) of neonatal and infant mortality due to preterm birth and IUGR. METHODS Participants were HIV-negative pregnant women and their(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed whether it would be feasible to replace the standard measure of net worth with simpler measures of wealth in population-based studies examining associations between wealth and health. METHODS We used data from the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (respondents aged 25-64 years) and the 2004 Health and Retirement Survey (respondents(More)