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Anorexia and involuntary weight loss are common and debilitating complications of a number of chronic diseases and inflammatory states. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 beta, are hypothesized to mediate these responses through direct actions on the central nervous system. However, the neural circuits through which proinflammatory cytokines regulate(More)
Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic neuropeptide produced by neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that is a key component of central neural circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure. Disorders in energy homeostasis, characterized by hypophagia and increased metabolic rate, frequently develop in animals with either(More)
To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is induced in disease states and is known to inhibit food intake when administered centrally. However, the neural pathways underlying this effect are not well understood. We demonstrate that LIF acutely inhibits food intake by directly activating pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate(More)
The central melanocortin system plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. We investigated whether genetic or pharmacologic blockade of central melanocortin signaling attenuates cardiac cachexia in mice and rats with heart failure. Permanent ligation of the left coronary artery (myocardial infarction (MI)) or sham operation(More)
Recently, inhaled immunosuppressive agents have attracted increasing attention for maintenance therapy following lung transplantation. The rationale for this delivery approach includes a more targeted and localized delivery to the diseased site with reduced systemic exposure, potentially leading to decreased adverse side effects. In this study, the in vitro(More)
BACKGROUND Ninety-nine percent of fatal poisonings occur in developing countries, particularly among agricultural workers. In a particular area, it is important to known the magnitude and pattern of acute poisonings, as it is important for early diagnosis and treatment and also for preventive measures. METHODS Hospital records of all unnatural causes of(More)
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