Unlike most species, humans cooperate extensively with group members who are not closely related to them, a pattern sustained in part by punishing non-cooperators and rewarding cooperators. Because internally cooperative groups prevail over less cooperative rival groups, it is thought that violent intergroup conflict played a key role in the evolution of… (More)
A field experiment (N = 113,047 participants) manipulated two factors in the sale of souvenir photos. First, some customers saw a traditional fixed price, whereas others could pay what they wanted (including $0). Second, approximately half of the customers saw a variation in which half of the revenue went to charity. At a standard fixed price, the… (More)
Building on previous research in economics and psychology, we propose that the costliness of initial prosocial behavior positively influences whether that behavior leads to consistent future behaviors. We suggest that costly prosocial behaviors serve as a signal of prosocial identity and that people subsequently behave in line with that self-perception. In… (More)
We investigate the role of identity and self-image consideration under "pay-what-you-want" pricing. Results from three field experiments show that often, when granted the opportunity to name the price of a product, fewer consumers choose to buy it than when the price is fixed and low. We show that this opt-out behavior is driven largely by individuals'… (More)
Avoiding overhead aversion in charity This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only.
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8 Governments, employers, and companies provide financial windfalls to individuals with some regularity. 9 Recent evidence suggests the framing (or description) of these windfalls can dramatically influence their 10 consumption. In particular, objectively identical income described as a positive departure from the status 11 quo (e.g., as a bonus) is more… (More)
Despite the ongoing need for shark conservation and management, prevailing negative sentiments marginalize these animals and legitimize permissive exploitation. These negative attitudes arise from an instinctive, yet exaggerated fear, which is validated and reinforced by disproportionate and sensationalistic news coverage of shark 'attacks' and by… (More)
Donors tend to avoid charities that dedicate a high percentage of expenses to administrative and fundraising costs, limiting the ability of nonprofits to be effective. We propose a solution to this problem: Use donations from major philanthropists to cover overhead expenses and offer potential donors an overhead-free donation opportunity. A laboratory… (More)
People often use price as a proxy for quality, resulting in a positive correlation between prices and product liking, known as the " price– quality " (P–Q) heuristic. Using data from three experiments conducted at a winery, this article offers a more complex and complete reference-dependent model of the relationship between price and quality. The authors… (More)