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This paper reviews the body of evidence that not only tryptophan and consequent 5-HT depletion, but also induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the detrimental effects of tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs) play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. IDO is induced by interferon (IFN)γ, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α,(More)
Increased inflammation and reduced neurogenesis have been associated with the pathophysiology of major depression. Here, we show for the first time how IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine shown to be increased in depressed patients, decreases neurogenesis in human hippocampal progenitor cells. IL-1β was detrimental to neurogenesis, as shown by a decrease in(More)
Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of(More)
There are different theories and hypotheses related to the aetiology of depression. The interaction between brain 5-HT level and the activity of its autoreceptors plays a role in mood changes and depression. In major depression, activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) and, increased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2(More)
The neurodegeneration hypothesis proposed major depression as a consequence of the imbalance between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. To test the hypothesis, plasma tryptophan and kynurenine pathway metabolites were studied in 58 patients with major depression and 189 normal controls. The mean tryptophan breakdown(More)
BACKGROUND The role of cytokines in bipolar disorder is still controversial. Although a few studies have found alterations of cytokines in bipolar disorder, their findings were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to determine whether the cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS A total of 37 manic patients with(More)
Stress during pregnancy, gestational stress, can increase the chance of developing postpartum depression, which is estimated to occur in 10% of women. Since major depression is accompanied by an activation of the inflammatory response system, the aim of this study was to investigate if stress during pregnancy induces postpartum depressive-like behaviour,(More)
OBJECTIVES Previous studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and major depression involves an altered peripheral immune system. It is not clear, however, whether such changes are associated with corresponding neuroinflammatory responses and disturbances of neurotransmission. METHODS This paper reviews the current state of knowledge(More)
The involvement of immune system activation in the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders is well documented. Inflammatory molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines could enhance the activity of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme which is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the tryptophan degradation pathway, the kynurenine pathway. The(More)
Several studies have shown that circulating S100B protein levels are elevated in schizophrenia. This finding has been specifically attributed to glial pathology, as S100B is produced by astroand oligodendroglial cells and is thought to act as a neurotrophic factor with effects on synaptogenesis, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neutrotransmission. However,(More)