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Combinatorial and structure-based medicinal chemistry strategies were used together to advance a lead compound with an activity of K(i) = 58 microM via a potency enhancement of >70 000-fold to an analogue with an activity of K(i) = 0.8 nM against influenza neuraminidase (A/Tokyo/67). Lead optimization was initiated using molecular modeling and combinatorial(More)
The valine at position 82 (Val 82) in the active site of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutates in response to therapy with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. By using the X-ray crystal structure of the complex of HIV protease and ritonavir, the potent protease inhibitor ABT-378, which has a diminished interaction with Val 82, was designed.(More)
The anxiety levels, tested in the conditioned defensive burying behaviour paradigm, were analyzed after various phases of copulatory behaviour. No differences in anxiety were found between the group of animals without sexual activity and the group of animals tested after five intromissions of the first ejaculatory series. A decrease in anxiety, reflected as(More)
The general purpose of the present study was to analyze the possible interactions between the GABA-benzodiazepine and the serotonergic (5-HT) systems in the anxiolytic action of diazepam and the 5-HT1A agonists, ipsapirone, indorenate, and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). The effect of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil(More)
The structure-activity relationships in two series of novel, symmetry-based inhibitors of HIV protease, the enzyme responsible for maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus, are described. Beginning with lead compounds 3-6, the effect of adding polar, heterocyclic end groups to one or both ends of the symmetric or pseudosymmetric inhibitors was probed.(More)
Isopropyl substituted 4-thioazolyl valine side chains are highly optimized P(2)-P(3) ligands for C2 symmetry-based HIV protease inhibitors, as exemplified by the drug ritonavir. Replacement of the side chain with the conformationally constrained hexahydrofurofuranyloxy P(2) ligand in combination with a dimethylphenoxyacetate on the other end of the(More)
A number of quinolones and related antibacterial compounds were screened for activity against calf thymus topoisomerase II by using the P4 unknotting and DNA breakage assays. Several compounds from different structural classes which inhibited DNA unknotting with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 8 to 25 micrograms/ml were identified. Two(More)
The structure-activity studies leading to the potent and clinically efficacious HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir are described. Beginning with the moderately potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor A-80987, systematic investigation of peripheral (P3 and P2') heterocyclic groups designed to decrease the rate of hepatic metabolism provided analogues with(More)
The HIV protease inhibitor Lopinavir has a pseudosymmetric core unit incorporating benzyl groups at both P-1, P-1' positions. A series of analogues incorporating non-aromatic side chains at the P-1 position were synthesized and the structure-activity relationships explored.