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Solving systems of nonlinear equations is a relatively complicated problem in which arise in a diverse range of sciences. There are a number of different approaches have been proposed. In this paper, we employ the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for solving systems of nonlinear equations. Some well-known problems are presented to demonstrate the(More)
This paper introduces a formalism, called Viewcharts, for speciication and composition of software behavioral views. The objective is software behav-ioral requirements speciication independent of implementation. The paper claims that behavioral requirements of large-scale and complex systems can bedescribed formally as compositions of simple behavioral(More)
This paper presents a review and discussion of post-factum software systems integration. The problem is deened; the approaches and associated issues are discussed. Integration of redundant software components, developed using diverse software engineering methodologies, into a fault tolerant system is reviewed. Finally, a novel approach to fault tolerant(More)
Large-scale software systems, distributed or otherwise, are generally complex to describe, construct, manage, understand, and maintain. Current research approaches to reducing this complexity separate software structural and behavioral descriptions. It is important to study and analyze the behavioral as well as structural aspects of software systems. Much(More)
This paper introduces the idea of a software behav-ioural view: intuitively, this is a complete description of the behaviour of the system observable from a specific point of view. We believe that a fully developed methodology based on views would significantly reduce the complexity of creating and understanding software requirements. In this paper we take(More)