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Previously we showed that conjugation of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to Vi capsular polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi enhanced the anti-PspA response without the need to add adjuvant. In the current study conjugates consisting of the α helical regions of PspA families 1 or 2 bound to Vi were used to vaccinate mice to test their ability to(More)
This paper proposes a new image binarization method that uses a simple standard deviation approach and gives us very good results for MRI of brain images. The problem of binarization of gray MRI images due to the black background and large intensity variation has been overcome by our proposed method. This method is very useful to extract the objects of(More)
Developing countries are burdened with Shigella diarrhea. Understanding mucosal immune responses associated with natural Shigella infection is important to identify potential correlates of protection and, as such, to design effective vaccines. We performed a comparative analysis of circulating mucosal plasmablasts producing specific antibodies against(More)
In degraded document image processing, a reference image is required for quantitative evaluation. Most of the papers found in the literature rely on creating reference images based on manual processing which is often subjective and prone to error. This paper proposes a method for creating reference image for degraded documents binarisation. Another standard(More)
BACKGROUND The "gold standard" for assessing mucosal immunity after vaccination with poliovirus vaccines consists in measuring virus excretion in stool after challenge with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). This testing is time and resource intensive, and development of alternative methods is a priority for accelerating polio eradication. We therefore(More)
BACKGROUND The final endgame strategy of global polio eradication initiative includes switching from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). This study compares IPV with tOPV week 39 boost in Indian infants. METHODS Starting 28 March 2012, we enrolled 372(More)
Designing an appropriate data system is important to the success of a clinical study. However, little information is available on this topic. We share our experiences on designing, developing, and implementation of a data system for management of data and field activities of a complex clinical study. The data system was implemented aiming at determining the(More)
The enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay was originally developed to enumerate antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and has subsequently been adapted for various applications, including the detection cytokine-secreting cells. Owing to its exceptionally high sensitivity, the ELISPOT has proven to be especially useful for detecting discrete(More)
Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are noninvasive mucosal pathogens that cause acute watery diarrhea in people in developing countries. Direct assessment of the mucosal immune responses to these pathogens is problematic. Surrogate markers of local mucosal responses in blood are increasingly being studied to determine the mucosal(More)
The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low-income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected(More)