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We acquire information from the outside world through our eyes which contain the retina, the photosensitive component of the central nervous system. Once the adult mammalian retina is damaged, the retinal neuronal death causes a severe loss of visual function. It has been believed that the adult mammalian retina had no regenerative capacity. However, the(More)
The Wnt signaling pathway is essential for the development of diverse tissues during embryogenesis. Signal transduction is activated by the binding of Wnt proteins to the type I receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6 and the seven-pass transmembrane protein Frizzled (Fzd), which contains a Wnt-binding site in the form of a(More)
The anterior commissure (AC) is one of the important commissure projections in the brain that conveys information from one side of the nervous system to the other. During development, the axons from the anterior AC (aAC) and the posterior AC (pAC) course in the same dorsoventral plane and converge into a common fascicle for midline crossing. Previously, we(More)
The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates several cellular processes through binding to its receptors (S1P(1)-S1P(5)), which are heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we report that all S1P receptors are palmitoylated. In S1P(1), three Cys residues in the cytoplasmic tail are palmitoylated. We examined the roles of(More)
An antigen histochemically localized in the nuclei and cytoplasmic granules of normal and leukemic human myeloid cells has been identified as myeloperoxidase (MPO; EC 1.11.1.7). The localization and amount of the enzyme was determined by using a murine monoclonal antibody designated H-43-5 raised against nuclear proteins derived from human promyelocytic(More)
We have shown that draxin is a repulsive axon guidance molecule for a variety of neuron classes and that genetic deletion of draxin in mice results in the absence of all forebrain commissures. Moreover, we also identified a secreted molecule, Tsukushi (TSK), that belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family (SLRP) and inhibits signaling molecules,(More)
and ectopic expression, we demonstrated that Gata2 regulates GABAergic neuron development in the midbrain, but not in the rhombomere1. Without Gata2, all the precursors in the embryonic midbrain fail to activate GABAergic neuron-specific gene expression and switch to a glutamatergic phenotype instead. Surprisingly, this fate switch is also observed(More)
Oct-4, Nanog, Nodal, Sox2, E-cadherin, and FoxD3. In addition, the cells were induced to differentiate into three somatic germ layers, germ cell progenitors and into extraembryonic lineages. This is the first demonstration that pEpiSC can be expanded invitro and that they share similar signalling mechanisms to human ESC and mouse epiblast stem cells. pEpiSC(More)
Although the central nervous system is considered a comparatively static tissue with limited cell turnover, cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from most neural tissues. The spinal cord ependymal cells show neural stem cell potential in vitro and in vivo in injured spinal cord. However, very little is known regarding the ependymal niche in(More)
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