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This paper uses graphical techniques and multinomial logit analysis to evaluate the causes and consequences of episodes of turbulence in foreign exchange markets. Using a quarterly panel of data from 1959 through 1993 for twenty OECD countries, we consider the antecedents and aftermath of devaluations and revaluations, flotations, fixings, and speculative(More)
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines comprises 11 proteins (IL-1F1 to IL-1F11) encoded by 11 distinct genes in humans and mice. IL-1-type cytokines are major mediators of innate immune reactions, and blockade of the founding members IL-1alpha or IL-1beta by the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) has demonstrated a central role of IL-1 in a(More)
This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF. The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. This paper attempts to(More)
PURPOSE Amplification of the MYCN oncogene at chromosome 2p24-25 identifies an aggressive subtype of human neuroblastoma with a poor clinical outcome. Differences in amplicon structure and coamplification of genes telomeric and centromeric to the MYCN oncogene have previously been described. A relevant role of gene coamplification for neuroblastoma(More)
In response to stimuli that activate p53, cells can undergo either apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, depending on the precise pattern of p53 target genes that is activated. We show here that Zbtb4, a transcriptional repressor protein, associates with the Sin3/histone deacetylase co-repressor and represses expression of P21CIP1 as part of a heterodimeric(More)
Infection or cell damage triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin(IL)-1α or β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α which are key mediators of the host immune response. Following their identification and the elucidation of central signaling pathways, recent results show a highly complex crosstalk between various cytokines and their(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced mRNA expression of ccl2 (also called MCP-1), a prototypic highly regulated inflammatory gene, is severely suppressed in cells lacking c-Jun or Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1)/JNK2 genes and is only partially restored in cells expressing a c-Jun(SS63/73AA) mutant protein. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify(More)
OBJECTIVE Fronto-striatal dysfunction has been discussed as underlying symptoms of Tourette syndrome (TS) with co-morbid Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This suggests possible impairments of executive functions in this disorder, which were therefore targeted in the present study. METHODS A comprehensive series of neuropsychological tests examining(More)
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3, as a cofactor in co-repressor complexes containing silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR), has been shown to repress gene transcription in a variety of contexts. Here, we reveal a novel role for HDAC3 as a positive regulator of IL-1-induced gene expression.(More)
The innate immune system senses molecular patterns from invading microorganisms. Once activated, it orchestrates the inflammatory response by secreting proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1)-type cytokines, in particular IL-1beta. IL-1 mediates the expression of a vast array of genes involved in secondary inflammation. IL-1-responsive genes(More)