Axel T Brunger

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The evolutionarily conserved SNARE proteins and their complexes are involved in the fusion of vesicles with their target membranes; however, the overall organization and structural details of these complexes are unknown. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.4 A resolution of a core synaptic fusion complex containing syntaxin-1 A, synaptobrevin-II(More)
Version 1.2 of the software system, termed Crystallography and NMR system (CNS), for crystallographic and NMR structure determination has been released. Since its first release, the goals of CNS have been (i) to create a flexible computational framework for exploration of new approaches to structure determination, (ii) to provide tools for structure(More)
SNARE [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) attachment protein receptor] proteins are essential for membrane fusion and are conserved from yeast to humans. Sequence alignments of the most conserved regions were mapped onto the recently solved crystal structure of the heterotrimeric synaptic fusion complex. The association of the four(More)
The small G protein Rab3A plays an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. The crystal structure of activated Rab3A/GTP/Mg2+ bound to the effector domain of rabphilin-3A was solved to 2.6 A resolution. Rabphilin-3A contacts Rab3A in two distinct areas. The first interface involves the Rab3A switch I and switch II regions, which are(More)
The Sec6/8 complex, also known as the exocyst complex, is an octameric protein complex that has been implicated in tethering of secretory vesicles to specific regions on the plasma membrane. Two subunits of the Sec6/8 complex, Exo84 and Sec5, have recently been shown to be effector targets for active Ral GTPases. However, the mechanism by which Ral proteins(More)
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Proteolysis Site (GPS) of cell-adhesion GPCRs and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) proteins constitutes a highly conserved autoproteolysis sequence, but its catalytic mechanism remains unknown. Here, we show that unexpectedly the ∼40-residue GPS motif represents an integral part of a much larger ∼320-residue domain that(More)
Human transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a member of a large family of enzymes that catalyze protein crosslinking, plays an important role in the extracellular matrix biology of many tissues and is implicated in the gluten-induced pathogenesis of celiac sprue. Although vertebrate transglutaminases have been studied extensively, thus far all structurally(More)
The FFAT motif is a targeting signal responsible for localizing a number of proteins to the cytosolic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to the nuclear membrane. FFAT motifs bind to members of the highly conserved VAP protein family, which are tethered to the cytoplasmic face of the ER by a C-terminal transmembrane domain. We have solved crystal(More)
Neurexins and neuroligins provide trans-synaptic connectivity by the Ca2+-dependent interaction of their alternatively spliced extracellular domains. Neuroligins specify synapses in an activity-dependent manner, presumably by binding to neurexins. Here, we present the crystal structures of neuroligin-1 in isolation and in complex with neurexin-1 beta.(More)
Clostridal neurotoxins (CNTs) are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus. CNTs impair neuronal exocytosis through specific proteolysis of essential proteins called SNAREs. SNARE assembly into a low-energy ternary complex is believed to catalyse membrane fusion, precipitating neurotransmitter release; this process is(More)