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BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor (TGF)beta superfamily members transduce signals by oligomerizing two classes of serine/threonine kinase receptors, termed type I and type II. In contrast to the large number of ligands only seven type I and five type II receptors have been identified in mammals, implicating a prominent promiscuity in ligand-receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators in the embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis in all animals. Loss of function or dysregulation of BMPs results in severe diseases or even lethality. Like transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas), activins, growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and other members of the(More)
PURPOSE The biologic relevance of human connective tissue growth factor (hCTGF) for primary human tenon fibroblasts (HTFs) was investigated by RNA expression profiling using affymetrix(TM) oligonucleotide array technology to identify genes that are regulated by hCTGF. METHODS Recombinant hCTGF was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified by affinity and(More)
Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), in contrast to membrane TWEAK and TNF, is only a weak activator of the classical NFκB pathway. We observed that soluble TWEAK was regularly more potent than TNF with respect to the induction of TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), a NFκB-controlled signaling protein involved in(More)
Donor CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT [allo-HCT]). Current clinical study protocols rely on the ex vivo expansion of donor T reg cells and their infusion in high numbers. In this study, we present a novel strategy for inhibiting GvHD that(More)
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