Learn More
The RNA-binding protein Bicaudal C is an important regulator of embryonic development in C. elegans, Drosophila and Xenopus. In mouse, bicaudal C (Bicc1) mutants are characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney and by expansion of epithelial ducts in liver and pancreas. This phenotype is reminiscent of human forms of polycystic kidney(More)
Determination of the vertebrate left-right body axis during embryogenesis results in asymmetric development and placement of most inner organs. Although the asymmetric Nodal cascade is conserved in all vertebrates, the mechanism of symmetry breakage has remained controversial. In mammalian and fish embryos, a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular(More)
Leftward flow of extracellular fluid breaks the bilateral symmetry of most vertebrate embryos, manifested by the ensuing asymmetric induction of Nodal signaling in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Flow is generated by rotational beating of polarized monocilia at the posterior notochord (PNC; mammals), Kupffer's vesicle (KV; teleost fish) and the(More)
In vertebrates, most inner organs are asymmetrically arranged with respect to the main body axis [1]. Symmetry breakage in fish, amphibian, and mammalian embryos depends on cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluid during neurulation [2-5]. Flow induces the asymmetric nodal cascade that governs asymmetric organ morphogenesis and placement [1, 6, 7].(More)
Generation of laterality depends on a pathway which involves the asymmetrically expressed genes nodal, Ebaf, Leftb, and Pitx2. In mouse, node monocilia are required upstream of the nodal cascade. In chick and frog, gap junctions are essential prior to node/organizer formation. It was hypothesized that differential activity of ion channels gives rise to(More)
During vertebrate embryogenesis, a left-right axis is established. The heart, associated vessels and inner organs adopt asymmetric spatial arrangements and morphologies. Secreted growth factors of the TGF-beta family, including nodal, lefty-1 and lefty-2, play crucial roles in establishing left-right asymmetries [1] [2] [3]. In zebrafish, nodal signalling(More)
During vertebrate left-right development the homeobox gene Pitx2 serves as a mediator between transient nodal signaling in the left lateral plate mesoderm (l-LPM) and asymmetric organ morphogenesis. Misexpression of Pitx2 in chick and frog led to alteration of organ situs. Here we report the presence of different Pitx2 isoforms in mouse and frog. Pitx2c but(More)
Vertebrate organ laterality is manifested by the asymmetric morphogenesis and placement of inner organs. Asymmetric induction of the Nodal signaling cascade in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) precedes and is essential for asymmetric organ morphogenesis. While the Nodal cascade is highly conserved, symmetry breakage is considered to vary between the(More)
The embryonic skin of Xenopus tadpoles serves as an experimental model system for mucociliary epithelia (MCE) such as the human airway epithelium. MCEs are characterized by the presence of mucus-secreting goblet and multiciliated cells (MCCs). A third cell type, ion-secreting cells (ISCs), is present in the larval skin as well. Synchronized beating of MCC(More)
The mammalian node, the functional equivalent of the frog dorsal blastoporal lip (Spemann's organizer), was originally described by Viktor Hensen in 1876 in the rabbit embryo as a mass of cells at the anterior end of the primitive streak. Today, the term "node" is commonly used to describe a bilaminar epithelial groove presenting itself as an indentation or(More)