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Clonal composition and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating actively demyelinating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions were determined with unprecedented resolution at the level of single cells. Individual CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells were isolated from frozen sections of lesional tissue by micromanipulation and subjected to(More)
IL-10 plays a central role in restraining the vigor of inflammatory responses, but the critical cellular sources of this counter-regulatory cytokine remain speculative in many disease models. Using a novel IL-10 transcriptional reporter mouse, we found an unexpected predominance of B cells (including plasma cells) among IL-10-expressing cells in peripheral(More)
Influx of macrophages plays a crucial role in tissue repair. However, the precise function of macrophages during the healing response has remained a subject of debate due to their functional dichotomy as effectors of both tissue injury and repair. We tested the hypothesis that macrophages recruited during the diverse phases of skin repair after mechanical(More)
The regulatory T (Treg) cells restrain immune responses through suppressor-function elaboration that is dependent upon expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. Despite a critical role for Treg cells in maintaining lympho-myeloid homeostasis, it remains unclear whether a single mechanism or multiple mechanisms of Treg cell-mediated suppression are(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic infection with the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes gastric disorders, ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. Only a subset of infected persons will develop overt disease; most remains asymptomatic despite lifelong colonization. This study aims to elucidate the differential susceptibility to H pylori(More)
A prominent feature of sensitizing environmental compounds that cause allergic contact dermatitis is the rapid induction of an innate inflammatory response that seems to provide danger signals for efficient T cell priming. We generated mouse models of mast cell deficiency, mast cell-specific gene inactivation, and mast cell reporter mice for intravital(More)
Mice lacking epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) develop exaggerated contact-hypersensitivity (CHS) responses due to the absence of LC during sensitization/initiation. Examination of T cell responses reveals that the absence of LC leads to increased numbers of hapten-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells but does not alter cytokine expression or development of T(More)
B cells regulate autoimmune pathologies and chronic inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis and inflammatory bowel disease. The potential counterregulatory role of B cells in balancing pathogen-specific immune responses and the associated immunopathology is less well understood owing to the lack of appropriate persistent infection(More)
We surveyed the T cell receptor repertoire in three separate compartments (brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood) of two multiple sclerosis patients who initially had diagnostic brain biopsies to clarify their unusual clinical presentation but were subsequently confirmed to have typical multiple sclerosis. One of the brain biopsy specimens had been(More)
Interleukin (IL)-10 is a regulator of inflammatory responses and is secreted by a variety of different cell types including T cells. T regulatory cells have been shown to suppress immune responses by IL-10-dependent, but also IL-10-independent, mechanisms. Herein, we address the role of T cell-derived IL-10 in mice with an inactivation of the IL-10 gene(More)